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    风景旅游区规划设计新模式——“大区小镇”呀诺达热带雨林生态旅游区

    关键词:风景园林;风景区规划;生态旅游;热带雨林;设计导则;大区小镇;绿廊

    Key words:landscape architecture; scenic area planning; eco-tourism; tropical forest; design guideline; large area vs. small town; greenway

    摘要:在快速的旅游业发展进程和风景度假区开发建设中,建设并不总是遵循“最佳设计”原则。旅游业和地产业的发展常常要以风景文化资源损失为代价,景区、景点、度假区的发展主要是通过当地居民的搬迁来获得发展空间,而三亚呀诺达热带雨林旅游度假区打破这一传统的规划设计理念,其规划设计及建设过程尝试了一套新的模式。设计团队对项目区域进行了自然、人文、政治层面的全面分析,鼓励原住民的参与,与政府、开发方、设计方共同形成愿景,并将整个大区划分为不同等级分别对待,将不宜耕田的地块划为一期,提供示范区具体设计和设计导则,在保证原住民基本不搬迁的前提下形成具有特色的小镇风格旅游度假区,发扬当地黎峒文化,收到良好的生态、社会、经济等多方面综合效益。

    Abstract:Recent development trends have not allowed "best design practices" to be observed, especially in the rush to develop a thriving tourism industry, make use of scenic areas, and build a modernized resort network. Additionally, in order to make way for housing complexes and other lucrative venues, people have been relocated despite of their objections. A recent project, Yanoda Tropical Park in Sanya, Hainan breaks these sociologically and ecologically unsound patterns. Yanoda Tropical Park sets the standard for future eco-tourism projects. The design team thoroughly assessed the area's natural, cultural, and social resources, inviting the locals, developer, and government officials to participate in the planning process, to come up an agreeable vision for the area's future plan. The site was divided into four quadrants according to the level of developmental restriction. Phase 1 was to be located on what was considered undesirable land for farming. Design guidelines also provide for future development. The project is a progressive blend of ideas involving local residents into the planning process that improves their standard of living and the environmental conditions of the site while creating a high quality resort and unique tourist experience. Most local residents were not relocated as the traditional cultures of Li and Dong minorities contribute to the unique tourist experience for town center and resort area. The region has since received social, environmental, and economic benefits, proving that the planning process and development model is successful.

    内容: 城市的快速发展使得城市中供人们游憩的自然环境越来越难找,人们希望换个新鲜的环境,改变生活节奏,满足个人兴趣并享受独特的自然风光。因而,融休闲、度假、娱乐功能于一体的旅游度假区成为人们身心放松的优先选择。同时,生活方式的转变使人们休闲时间增加,也促进了度假区的蓬勃发展。近年来,旅游度假产业的迅速崛起大大刺激了度假区的建设,新兴风景度假区的建设和旅游地产的发展已经进入快车道。然而在快速的发展过程中,建设并不总是遵循“最佳设计”原则,旅游业和旅游度假地产的发展常常要以风景文化资源损失为代价。目前景区、景点、度假区的发展主要是通过当地居民的搬迁来获得发展空间。原住民尽管不情愿,也要为其他有力的投资搬迁让路。旅游大多以“政府+公司+旅行社”的开发模式为主,农民参与机会很小,农民生活水平的提高始终难以追上景区发展的速度,且差距越来越大。热带雨林旅游度假区以其独特的地理优势和风土人情成为旅游度假区设计的热点,但是脆弱的生态环境、频繁的人为干扰以及景区规划设计的不合理,导致了热带雨林景区环境的严重破坏,也影响到了度假区的正常运作。然而要扭转多年来形成的经验惯性或改变旅游度假区的传统发展模式朝着我们所期待的方向发展,需要理念上的转变和思路的创新,需要改变决策的思路,经营的模式,从根本上看到不同的未来——一个良性可持续发展的愿景[1]。 三亚呀诺达热带雨林旅游度假区打破传统的设计理念,在规划设计及建设过程中尝试了一套全新的模式:将景区、度假区与所在乡镇地区一起整体规划、共同发展;通过培训使原住民身份转变,成为景区、度假区发展的参与者和经营者;发扬当地黎苗文化,使景区生态环境面貌、乡镇经济发展水平、园区村民生活标准随着旅游景区和度假区的发展而同步得到提升,同赢共生。在建造高质量的度假村,让游客感受独特的生态旅游体验的同时,还可以改善居民的生活质量,促进旅游度假区所在行政区域内居民整体文明程度的提高。