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    变换的凝视——试论欧洲15—19世纪风景园林的观看之道

    关键词:风景园林;观看方式;意识形态;自然观;权力;视觉文化;凝视

    Key words:landscape architecture; way of seeing; ideology; concept of nature; power; visual culture; gaze

    摘要:通过对欧洲15—19世纪的风景园林和城市景观的观看方式进行考察,发现并总结出4种类型,窥探性凝视(15、16世纪意大利文艺复兴园林)、极致性凝视(17世纪法国古典主义园林)、镜像性凝视(18世纪英国自然风景式园林)和监控性凝视(19世纪现代性都市景观)。进而对这些观看方式所表征的社会意识形态及其文化内涵进行批判性分析与解读,认为始终存在着一条对自然进行驯化和对人进行规训的意识形态主线贯穿其中并发挥作用。

    Abstract:Based on the study of the ways of seeing about European gardens and landscapes in the 1400s-1800s, this paper summarizes four types of ways, including voyeur's gaze (Italian Renaissance garden in the 1400s-1500s), extreme gaze (French formal garden in the 1600s), reflection's gaze (English landscape garden in the 1700s) and surveillance gaze (urban landscape of modernity in the 1800s), and then makes critical analysis and explanation on the ideological and cultural implications which are represented by the ways of seeing. This paper presents that there exists a main line of the ideology throughout, which domesticates the nature and gives discipline to the human.