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    视觉景观研究——回顾与展望

    关键词:风景园林;视觉景观评估;评估方法;展望

    Key words:landscape architecture; visual landscape assessment; assessment method; outlook

    摘要:阐述了视觉景观研究的回顾与展望。在2个对立学派的基础上形成视觉景观质量评估。客观主义者或物理学派(基于专家的方式方法)认为视觉景观质量是其自身物质特性的内在表现。主观主义者或心理学派(基于个人的方式方法)认为景观美是客体或视觉媒介和观察者的相互作用。如照片、草图、模型、三维可视化等景观表达可以协助实施现场或遥感评估。评估方法包括例如明智的配对比较法、分类法,还有其他分级或排序法。大多数的研究脱离现实环境而实施,容易忽视人们动态地感知世界。在虚拟现实影院里,景观身临其境的体验为观众提供了自由探索这个虚拟环境的机会。移动增强现实技术的最新发展进一步提供了这种可能:现存环境的影像与被数字可视化的未来变化影像相叠合,如同现场体验一般,从而提供了全方位的感官体验,这将为景观评估提供新的途径。

    Abstract:This paper provides an overview and outlook of research on the visual landscape. The quality of the visual landscape is approached on the basis of two contrasting paradigms. The objectivist or physical paradigm (expert based approach) assumes that visual landscape quality is inherent in its physical characteristics. The subjectivist or psychological paradigm (lay person based approach) regards landscape beauty as a function of the object or the visual stimulus and the observer. Assessments can be carried out on-site or remotely; assisted by representations of the landscape, e.g. photographs, sketches, models, 3D-visualisations, etc. Assessment methods include e.g. pair-wise comparisons, sorting techniques as well as other rating or ranking techniques. Most research is carried out detached from the actual environment and tends to neglect that humans perceive the world dynamically. The immersive experience of landscape in a virtual reality theatre provides the viewer with the opportunity to freely explore this virtual environment. Recent developments in mobile Augmented Reality go further and allow to overlay digital visualisations showing proposed future changes on top of the existing environment as experienced in the field. Thus providing a multi-sensory experience. This has the potential to lead to new routes in landscape assessment.