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    基于作用对象的城市绿色空间三大效益计量导论

    关键词:风景园林;城市绿色空间;效益;计量方法;导论

    Key words:landscape architecture; urban green space; benefit; evaluation method; introduction

    摘要:通过对城市绿色空间功能—作用的分析,重新界定了城市绿色空间经济效益、生态效益和社会效益的内涵;按照城市绿色空间功能所作用的对象,划分全球生态、区域环境、区域健康、基本生活、精神生活和物质生活7个关系域;建立了基于可统计数据的城市绿色空间社会效益和生态效益估算的一般方法:以自然灾害损失与森林覆盖率、蓄积水平关系的二元回归关系模型,估算对区域环境安全所贡献的效益;以环境健康经济学的暴露—反应相关理论和方法,估算城市居民因植被对污染物的吸附所导致的减少空气污染造成的健康损害的效益;以相对价值、等效替代法和城市土地级差地租,估算改善基本生活环境作用于居民的身心健康效益;以经济人理论为基础,采用最低等值替代法估算对于人类精神健康作用的效益;以国家法律保护的生物资源的种类、数量及其价值为基础,进行生物多样性的经济价值计量。

    Abstract:By analyzing the effect and function of urban green space, its economic, ecological and social benefits connotations are redefined. According to the object of urban green space functions, 7 relationship domains of global ecology, regional environment, regional health, basic life, spiritual life and material life are divided. A general method for the evaluation of urban green space ecological benefit and social efficiency is established: with the binary regression model of the relationship between natural disaster losses and the forest coverage rate and volume level, the benefits that urban green space contributes to regional environmental safety could be evaluated; with the exposure-reaction theories and methods of environmental health economics, the benefits that vegetation's absorption to reduce air pollution contributes to citizens' health could be evaluated; with relative value, the equivalent substitution and urban differential land rent, the physical and mental health benefits that urban green space contributes to the improvement of citizens' basic living could be evaluated; based on the agent theory, the minimum equivalent substitution method could be used to estimate the benefits of forest for human mental health; based on the types, quantity and value of biological resources protected by state laws, the economic values of urban green space biodiversity could be evaluated.