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期刊杂志

    关于龙安寺方丈庭园造园意图的考察

    关键词:风景园林;龙安寺方丈庭园;五台山;造园意图

    Key words:landscape architecture; Ryoanji Rock Garden; Mt. Wutai; garden design motif

    摘要:“龙安寺方丈庭园”是日本具有代表性的庭园,但其建造时期、建造者、建造意图都未有定论。本文认为此园是对中国五台山的描绘。自古以来五台山的文殊菩萨信仰非常兴盛,从8世纪开始有多位来自日本的高僧到访过五台山,并将佛像、绘画等带回了日本。以此为依据在13世纪绘制而成的“五台山文殊菩萨骑狮像”,中央石峰的形态与“龙安寺方丈庭园”中央置石组群造型相同,可以推断“五台山文殊菩萨骑狮像”中的石峰是其描摹的原型。

    Abstract:The rock garden of Ryoanji Temple in Japan is one of the representative Japanese gardens. However, it is not known when it was built or who designed it. There are many theories about its design concept and it is difficult to tell which the original one really was. This paper reports on the evidence that leads to the conclusion that the design of the garden was a depiction of Mt. Wutai in China. Mt. Wutai has been believed to be the dwelling place of immortals since ancient times and associated also with the worship of the bodhisattva Manjusri in Buddhism. Japanese Buddhist priests visited Mt. Wutai around the 9th century and they brought back various goods such as Buddhist statues and sutras to Japan, which influenced the works of art in Japan, including the images of Mt. Wutai Manjusri. Among them, a 13th-century drawing that remains up to the present in the custody of Daigoji Temple deserves special attention; it depicts Manjusri riding on a lion and accompanied by four attendants with the five peaks of Mt. Wutai rising above the clouds in the background. The central peak in this drawing resembles the rock at the center of the Ryoanji garden so well as to indicate that the rock garden of Ryoanji Temple was designed to reproduce Mt. Wutai as depicted in this historic drawing.