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期刊杂志

    《园冶》的环境美学思想

    关键词:风景园林;环境;美学

    Key words:landscape architecture; garden environment; aesthetics

    摘要:《园冶》作为造园的理论,从头到尾强调人是园林的主人。园林须满足他的生活需要,体现出他的生活情趣,但园在某种意义上也是公共财富,园在多大程度上体现了这一定时代、一定社会、一定文化传统人类的审美诉求就成为此园品位高低的重要评判标准。《园冶》将园满足人的生活需要的程度区别为各种不同层次,最低层次为适人即宜居,最高层次为可人即乐居。具体到造园,《园冶》提出景色如画和境界似仙的理论,充分体现出中国人的审美理想。《园冶》提出的“虽由人作,宛自天开”的理论既是中国古代园林建设的最高概括,也是中国环境美学乃至环境哲学的集中体现。

    Abstract:Yuan Ye (The Crafts of Garden), as the theory of garden construction, emphasizes the role of human as the owner of garden. Garden must fulfill the needs of his life and exhibit the joy of his life. However, gardens are public properties to some extent. One important rule to evaluate the taste of gardens is to what extent they realize the aesthetic needs of human being living at a certain time period, in a certain society, and within a certain cultural tradition. Yuan Ye divides the degree to which gardens satisfy human beings' needs into different levels. The lowest level is suitable, namely living friendly, and the highest level is pleasant, namely enjoyable living. Yuan Ye proposes landscape-as-picture and status-as-immortal theories to guide the construction of gardens, which fully exhibits the Chinese aesthetic ideal. The "man-made yet natural" theory proposed by Yuan Ye is the supreme summary of the construction of Chinese ancient gardens as well as the collective exhibition of Chinese environmental aesthetics and environmental philosophy.