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    从两宋园林的变化看南宋园林艺术特征

    关键词:风景园林;南宋园林;艺术特征;两宋园林嬗变

    Key words:landscape architecture; Southern Song Dynasty garden; artistic characteristic; garden transmutation during the period of Northern and Southern Song Dynasties

    摘要:论述了两宋园林审美从大尺度到精致化、从理想化到残缺美、从平远到深远之嬗变,相对于北宋,认为南宋园林多了几分雅俗共赏、闲适优雅的生活情趣,适应于江南的自然环境,山石经营“叠置有峰”,园林理水变化多端;园林建筑纤巧多变,群体组合错落致密;园林栽培技术成熟,花木繁盛,突出了植物在题名点景方面的文化意蕴。总结出南宋园林逐渐远离了“平远、壮美、雄浑”的境界,日益“诗化、画化、精致化”,显现出“巧趣柔美、清雅俊逸、精深幽邃、幻化多致”的写意特征。

    Abstract:The transmutation from macro-scale to delicacy, from idealism to fragmentary beauty, and from plain distance to deepening distance of the garden aesthetics of the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties is discussed in this paper. Compared to the Northern Song Dynasty, the Southern Song Dynasty gardens had more refined-popular taste blended and leisure lifestyle features, were suitable to the natural environment of south China, and had more featured rockeries and diversified waterscape. Garden buildings were slim and varied and building groups were compact and scattered, and the planting techniques were quite skillful and the blooming flowers and trees highlighted the plants' culture implications in sceneries. It is summarized that the Southern Sony Dynasty gardens gradually got away from the conception of "being plain distant, magnificent, and powerful", became increasingly "poetic, picturesque, and refined", and show the artistic characteristics of "being artfully delicate, elegant, profound, and varied".