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    从麦克哈格到斯坦尼兹——基于景观生态学的风景园林规划理论与方法的嬗变

    关键词:风景园林;景观生态学;多解规划;综合规划;嬗变

    Key words:landscape architecture; landscape ecology; multi-solution planning; comprehensive planning; transmutation

    摘要:在地理学、生态学、景观生态学等相关学科知识的影响下,美国、加拿大、欧洲等国家的风景园林生态规划的理论和方法得以不断发展、变化、成熟和完善。通过类比分析,对乔治·希尔、菲利普·列维斯、伊恩·麦克哈格、斯坦尼兹、斯坦纳及鲁兹卡等西方现代风景园林设计先驱的生态规划方法及实践案例的分析和比较,梳理了欧美等国家生态规划研究发展的历史进程,揭示了生态规划理论及方法嬗变的背景、过程以及不同方法之间的侧重点及优缺点,以期为未来生态规划方法的进一步完善和调整提供有力的理论依据。同时,基于景观生态学的风景园林生态规划理论与方法的嬗变历程探究对我国生态规划理论及实践的发展也具有指导和借鉴意义。

    Abstract:Under the influence of related disciplines such as geography, ecology and landscape ecology, theories and methods of modern Western landscape eco-planning could be developed, changed and improved continuously. By analogy analysis, eco-planning methods and cases were compared among modern Western LA pioneers, as George A. Hill, Philip Lewis, Ian L. McHarg, Carl Steinitz, Steiner and Ruzicka, for the purpose of listing the historical process of development in the area of eco-planning and revealing the background, changes, differences, merit and demerit, providing theoretical foundation for adjusting future eco-planning methods. Meanwhile, it is valuable and significant for doing the research as to transmutation of eco-planning in the field of Western landscape architecture, to guide the practices of ecological planning in China.