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    美国国家公园的特许经营制度及其对中国风景名胜区转让经营的借鉴意义

    关键词:风景园林;风景名胜区;转让经营;美国国家公园;特许经营;有偿使用

    Key words:landscape architecture; famous scenic site; transfer; American national park; concession; compensated use

    摘要:在中国,经济的快速发展和市场引导的开发行为,加大了对风景名胜资源的开发利用力度,导致一些风景名胜、自然文化遗产等资源被企业占有和破坏,因此,亟待建立一套合理有效的风景名胜区经营管理制度,规范风景名胜区开发经营行为。简要介绍了中国风景名胜区转让经营的现状,重点对当前风景名胜区转让经营过程中存在的问题进行了分析,系统整理了美国国家公园的特许经营制度。在此基础上,提出了进一步规范风景名胜区开发经营行为,探讨建立风景名胜区特许经营制度,加大政府和主管部门对风景名胜区资源保护监管力度等一系列建议措施。

    Abstract:The fast economic growth and market-orientated development in China enforce the usage of scenic and historic resources, which lead to the occupation of enterprise and damage on some scared resources of scenic areas and heritages. As a result, effective management and regulation system on development should be in urgent need of establishment. The paper firstly emphasizes on analyzing the problems existing in transferring operation of scenic areas under current situation and reviews the experience of concession management of NPS of the United States. Based on this, the paper raises a series of suggestions and solutions on how to further regulate development management, discussing concession management establishment and enforcing protection, supervising and management from government.

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