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期刊杂志

    北方常用园林植物滞留颗粒物能力评价

    关键词:园林植物;大气颗粒物;乔木;灌木;滞尘能力

    Key words:landscape plants; atmospheric particle; tree; shrub; dust detaining capability

    摘要:为研究不同植物叶片的滞尘规律,选择北京市具有代表性的60种绿化植物作为研究对象,应用直接采样和统计分析的方法,在同一开敞式的环境条件下,对单位叶面积7d与14d的滞尘量与滞尘累积量、整株植物滞尘量分别进行分析,并利用聚类分析方法对植物滞尘能力进行了系统评价。结果表明:1)对乔灌木单位叶面积滞尘量进行比较,植物个体之间滞尘能力有很大的差异,落叶乔木银杏(1.619g/m2)是绦柳(0.079g/m2)的20倍多;常绿乔木雪松(3.405g/m2)是油松(0.663g/m2)的5倍多;小叶黄杨(6.102g/m2)是紫叶小檗(0.312g/m2)的19倍多。2)对乔灌木单位叶面积滞尘累积量进行分析,园林植物14d滞尘量与7d滞尘量相比,都呈现增加状态,刺槐、毛白杨、栾树、七叶树、紫荆、红丁香、金银木、紫薇、紫叶小檗、天目琼花等11种植物累积量最多,增加1倍以上的滞尘量;而臭椿、北京丁香、樱花、雪松、白玉兰、金钟花、木槿、钻石海棠、卫矛等植物累积量较少,都仅仅增加了1%不到的滞尘量。3)按照滞尘能力大小进行分类,乔木中,圆柏、银杏、毛白杨与刺槐属于高滞尘能力植物;灌木中,胡枝子、榆叶梅与木槿属于高滞尘能力植物。

    Abstract:In order to research the dust detaining capability and its rules of different plant leaves, 60 species of representative plants in Beijing were chosen to systematically analyze the dust accumulation for 7 days and 14 days on the leaves of different plants and the dust retention of the whole plants in the same open surroundings by using direct sampling and statistical analysis methods, and the clustering method was used to evaluate the dust detaining capability of plants. The results showed that: (1)The capability of dust retention by trees and shrubs in every unit leaf area showed that the capability of dust retention among the plants individuals had big differences, deciduous tree of Ginkgo biloba (1.619g/m2) was more than 20 times as Salix pendula(0.079g/m2), Evergreen Tree of Cedus deodara, 3.405g/m2, was more than 5 times as Pinus tabuliformis(0.663g/m2), Buxus microphylla(6.102g/m2) was more than 19 times as Berberis thunbergii cv. Atropurpurea. (2)With the analysis of dust accumulation by trees and shrubs, leaves which retained dust for 14 days had more dust deposition than those retained dust for 7 days. Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus tomentosa, Koelreuteria paniculata, Aesculus chinensis, Cercis chinensis, Syringa oblate, Lonicera maackii, Lagerstroemia indica, Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea', and Viburnum opulus had more dust accumulation which had more than doubled in 7 days. Ailanthus altissima, Syringa reticulate, Prunus serrulata, Cedus deodara, Magnolia denudate, Forsythia viridissima, Hibiscus syriacus, Malus sparkler and Euonymus alatus had less dust accumulation which increased only by 1% in 7 days. (3)The dust detaining capability was classified that Sabina chinensis, Ginkgo biloba, Populus tomentosa and Robinia pseudoacacia had high dust detaining capability in arbors, and Lespedeza bicolor, Amygdalus triloba and Hibiscus syriacus had high dust detaining capability in shrubs.

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