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    中国村落遗产保护中活态文化标准的可能性分析——从亚太地区文化遗产保护奖与中国传统村落评定的比较说起

    关键词:风景园林;评定标准;价值差异;村落遗产;亚太遗传奖

    Key words:landscape architecture; evaluation criteria; value difference; village heritage; UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Conservation Awards

    摘要:价值观与思维方式的差异,造成了东西方文化遗产不同的产生和延续方式。然而长期以来,作为东方文化体系的重要代表,中国村落遗产的评价与保护却缺乏从自身特点出发的考量,更多地遵从西方主流价值观影响下的遗产保护理念。从历史文化名村到最新的“传统村落”等各类村落遗产的评价标准,基本上是西方“物质真实”理念下的产物,而对居民社会组织、传统工艺技术、组织施工方式、日常生活需求等活态文化的重视不够。对比亚洲“文化真实”语境下的遗产保护实践——联合国教科文组织设立的亚太地区文化遗产保护奖,中国村落遗产的评价标准有必要在非物质文化、文化活态性、技术标准的传统性及面向未来的过程性4个方面进行补充和扩展。

    Abstract:The difference in value and thinking between the East and the West result in different ways of formation and continuation of cultural heritages. Yet for a long time, the evaluation and protection of China's cultural heritage, which is an important representative of Eastern culture system, is more a result of Western heritage conservation concept, rather than that of Asian context. Concretely, the evaluation criteria of Chinese heritage villages, which varies from the historical and cultural village to the latest "traditional village", do not fully consider the importance of traditional crafts and materials, living culture of villagers' daily life, or the future development of the village. Therefore, they are mostly a product of Western "material real" concept. Compared with the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Conservation Awards, which honors the outstanding heritage conservation practices in Asia's "cultural reality" context, the paper concludes that the evaluation criteria of China's village heritages could extend itself in four aspects: the intangible culture, culture's living state, traditional technical standards, and long-term development possibilities of the heritages.

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