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    视觉景观美感度评价研究现状及展望

    关键词:风景园林;景观美感度;景观特征;人口特征;美学评价;景观设计

    Key words:landscape architecture; landscape preference; landscape character; demographic characteristic; aesthetic evaluation; landscape design

    摘要:视觉景观美感度是指人们能够体验到的视觉景观美的程度,其大小不但与景观客体特征有关,而且与评价者的人口特征有关。景观美感度评价不但要确定一处景观美感度的大小,而且要深入理解影响景观美感度的因素,从而为风景园林实践提供服务。总结前人的研究结论,重点探讨了影响景观美感度的景观物理特征和评价者人口特征,但从前人的研究结论来看,不同的研究者并没有得出一致的结论,甚至有的结论是相反的。造成这种情况的原因可能在于:不同研究者研究的景观类型不同,选取的景观特征不同以及缺乏不同人口特征之间相互影响的研究。依据上述分析,指出了中国5个景观评价研究的重点发展方向:多个人口特征之间相互影响的研究,景观特征选取的研究,建设项目视觉景观影响评价的研究,视觉与其他知觉相互影响的研究以及美感度与其他景观功能关系研究。

    Abstract:Visual landscape preference is the degree of people experiencing the landscape beauty, which is related not only to the physical landscape characters, but also to the demographic characteristics of evaluators. Landscape preference assessment not only explores the degree of landscape beauty, but also finds the factors determining the beauty, which serves for the landscape design in practice. This paper, based on reviewing predecessors' works, analyzes the landscape characters and demographic characteristics which take a great influence on aesthetic preference. However, these works did not reach a consensus on these issues, even some conclusions were opposite. The reasons may be as follows: various landscape types in different studies, different landscape characters being selected by different studies and the lack of understanding for the interactions between demographic characters. Based on the above-mentioned analysis, this paper pointed out five main development directions of landscape preference assessment in China: the interactions between demographic characteristics, the selection of landscape characters, impact assessment for the aesthetic preference by construction projects, and the mutual effects of vision and other senses, and the relationships between visual quality and other landscape functions.

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