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    北京城市公园中鸟类对植物生境及种类的偏好研究

    关键词:风景园林;鸟类栖息地;植物生境;植物景观;北京奥林匹克森林公园

    Key words:landscape architecture; bird habitat; plant habitat; plant landscape; Beijing Olympic Forest Park

    摘要:研究鸟类对植物生境及种类的偏好,有利于未来构建有特色的城市鸟类栖息地植物景观。以北京奥林匹克森林公园为研究场所,旨在分析森林公园中各调查样点的植物生境类型,根据鸟类对植物的利用情况划分不同的鸟类集团,探究森林公园中适宜鸟类栖息的植物群落类型及植物种类。结果表明,森林公园中共划分8种鸟类集团,以落叶阔叶乔木为主的,具有丰富乔木及灌木层次的植物生境能够吸引更多鸟类集团;在有小乔木或小灌木的植物生境中,其对鸟类群落的重要值明显高于其他植物生境;增加蔷薇科小乔木的比例可以提高鸟类群落丰富度,而灌木种类越丰富,也能够吸引以棕头鸦雀(Paradoxornis webbianus)为代表的第3(虫食—探取)集团的鸟类栖息。乔木种类中旱柳、栾树等对鸟类群落的重要值最高,在植物生境中能够快速提高鸟类的丰富度和多样性水平。研究结果可以为构建城市鸟类栖息地植物景观提供树种参考和建议。

    Abstract:Study of bird preference to plant habitat and species is conductive to build distinctive plant landscape of urban bird habitats. In this paper, plant habitat types of the survey sample in Beijing Olympic forest park were investigated and analyzed to explore what kind of plant community types and plant species suitable for birds, and divide different bird groups based on their plant utilization. Results showed that 8 kind of bird groups is divided, in plant habitat with more deciduous broadleaf trees and abundant trees and shrubs levels can attract more birds group; the important value of plant habitat with small trees or shrubs to bird community was obviously higher than other plant habitat. Increasing the proportion of Rosaceae small trees can improve the bird richness, and plant more shrubs also can attract 3rd birds group (insectivore-take) represented by Paradoxornis webbianus. The important value of Salix matsudana and Koelreuteria paniculata for bird were higher than other trees, which could improve the richness and diversity of birds in plant habitat quickly. The results of the study can provide certain theoretical basis and strategies about the plant landscape construction of urban bird habitat in Beijing.

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