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    北京城市绿道植物多样性特征研究

    关键词:风景园林;绿道;植物多样性;RDA排序;北京

    Key words:landscape architecture; greenway; plant diversity; redundancy analysis; Beijing

    摘要:城市绿道是城市绿地的重要组成部分,具有廊道状特征,对于加强物种空间运动、维护城市生态系统平衡具有重要作用。以北京城市绿道为研究对象,对其植物物种组成、物种多样性及物种多样性与绿道特征的相关关系进行研究,结果表明:本次调查共记录维管束植物202种(含变种、栽培品种),隶属63科136属,本地木本植物指数为0.7,大多数乔木、灌木植物种类存在应用频度过低的问题。物种丰富度呈现出草本层≈乔木层>灌木层的规律,物种Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou均匀度指数呈现出乔木层>灌木层>草本层的规律。与其他绿道相比,元大都城垣遗址公园、南长河公园、营城建都滨水绿道具有较高的物种丰富度、多样性和均匀度。植物多样性与绿道特征的RDA排序结果显示,绿道长度、绿道类型和绿道宽度对植物多样性影响显著,绿道长度对乔木层植物影响较大,绿道类型和宽度对草本层和灌木层植物影响较大。

    Abstract:As an important part of urban green space, and with corridor characteristics, urban greenways play a significant role in promoting species movement and maintaining the balance of urban ecological system. Taking urban greenways of Beijing as the investigation object, this research studied the plant species composition, species diversity and the relationships between plant diversity and greenway characteristics. The result showed that: in total 202 plant species (including varieties and cultivars) were found in all these greenways, belonging to 136 genera and 63 families. Among all the recorded woody species with the lower application frequency of most trees and shrubs, 70% were native species. The laws of species richness were herb layer ≈ shrub layer > tree layer while the Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou's index had a similar pattern which was tree layer > shrub layer > herb layer. Among all the investigated greenways, Yuan Dynasty City Wall Relics Park, South River Park and Capital-Founding Waterfront Greenways had the higher species abundance, diversity and evenness. The redundancy analysis of the relationships between plant diversity and greenway characteristics indicated that the length, type and width were the main factors affecting plant diversity. The length of greenways had a greater influence on the plant diversity in tree layer while the plant diversity in herb layer and shrub layer was impacted significantly by the type and width of greenways.

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