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    英国自然环境保护方法的转变——从孤立的“场地”保护到全面综合的景观管理

    关键词:风景园林;自然保护;生物多样性;景观保护;景观管理;景观特征

    Key words:landscape architecture; nature conservation; biodiversity; landscape conversation; landscape management; landscape character

    摘要:追溯了英国自然环境保护运动的起源与发展,并对传统的历史与自然保护方法进行了概述与分析,指出基于场地的自然保护方法由于其生态系统范式固有的局限性已无法实现对重要景观特征及生物多样性的保护,更无法应对当今城市化快速发展与蔓延下广泛城市与乡村景观的变化与衰退。在此背景下“景观”以其整体性和综合性逐渐成为新的媒介与工具,可提供一个实现可持续发展的方法/手段,以调和发展与保护之间的固有矛盾。

    Abstract:This paper traces the origin and development of the natural environmental conversation movement in England, summarized and analyzed the traditional conversation methods, and pointed that the traditional methods based on independent sites cannot achieve the conservation of important landscape character and biodiversity because of ecosystem's inherent limitation, and also cannot cope with the varying and recession of urban and rural landscape under the spread of urbanization. In this context, the nature management and cultural heritage management have both moved from emphasizing sites to emphasizing landscapes as the focus for management, and "landscape" becomes a new medium and method because of its holistic and integrated properties, providing a tool for sustainable development, to reconcile the inherent contradiction between development and conversation.

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