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    上海地区雨水花园结构对降雨径流水文特征的影响

    关键词:风景园林;海绵城市;雨水花园;结构;径流;水文特征

    Key words:landscape architecture; sponge city; rain garden; structure; runoff; hydrological characteristics

    摘要:雨水花园是海绵城市构建过程中最基本、最适用的低影响设施技术之一,其结构特征是发挥自然式雨洪管控功能的关键。针对上海地区雨水径流的水文特点,通过室内人工模拟控制实验,运用正交实验方法,分析不同结构的雨水花园(包括填料类别、填料层厚度、排水层厚度)对降雨径流水文特征的影响(出流洪峰延迟时间、总削减率、渗透率、蓄水率)。结果表明,结构因素对出流洪峰延迟时间及径流总削减率的影响大小顺序为:填料层种类>填料层厚度>排水层厚度;对渗透率影响大小顺序为:填料层种类>填料层厚度>排水层厚度;对蓄水率影响大小顺序为:填料层厚度>排水层厚度>填料层填料;适宜上海地区以洪峰延迟及径流总量削减为主要目的的最优雨水花园结构是:沸石作为填料层填料,厚度为30~50cm;砾石作为排水层填料,厚度为20~30cm。

    Abstract:Rain garden is the most basic and the most suitable low-impact facilities technologyin the construction of sponge city, and its structural feature is key to the functioning of naturalstormwater management and control.In order to select suitable rain garden structure for Shanghai area, with high storage capacity structural parameters, the rainfall simulation and orthogonal experiments were operated according to the hydrological characteristics of runoff, which will promote the technology selection for the sponge city. The impactsof diverse raingarden structure (improved planting soil, gravel, zeolite, fly-ash block) on runoff, such as outflow peak delay, total runoff reduce rate, rain garden permeability rate, rain garden storage rate,were analyzed. Theresults show that, the ranking for factors influencing outflow peak delay and runoff reduce rate is type of filter layer, thickness of filter layer and thickness of drainage blanket, respectively. The impact for type of filter layer on permeability rate is higher than others. While for the one on storage rate, the thickness of filter layer is the highest. As a result, the suitable and functional raingarden structure for storing runoff at Shanghai areais of 30-50cm zeolite filter layer and 20-30cm drainage layer.

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