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期刊杂志

    中国传统园林中“亭踞山巅”的再认识:作用、文化与观念变迁

    关键词:风景园林;假山;亭阁;自然;画意

    Key words:landscape architecture; artificial rockery; pavilion; nature; painterly idea

    摘要:无论是根据历史文献还是现有遗存,“亭踞山巅”在传统园林中非常常见,然而当代研究对此常有质疑或忽略。针对这种现象及反差,研究“亭踞山巅”旨在获得一系列的历史性认识。从大量命名及文献中可以看到,山巅之亭的作用主要是观景场所,而非被观对象。根据深入历史语境下的当代研究,山巅之亭所反映的“自然”与“人工”之间的文化内涵,是自然景物与人工营造之间的连续一体、和谐共存、相互作用的密切关系,而并非人工凌驾于自然之上的矛盾。根据对晚明园林的研究,“画意”成为造园叠山的宗旨,以及因为张南垣的影响力,使得形式构图及尺度问题变得突出,从而一直影响至今。

    Abstract:In traditional Chinese gardens, pavilions on the top of artificial rockeries can often be seen in both historical articles and remaining heritages. However, in most of contemporary academic study of traditional Chinese garden rockery, the issue of rockery-top pavilion is often questioned or neglected. Starting from the contrast, a series of historical understandings are to be acquired. A rockey-top pavilion is regarded as more of a viewing place than a scenic site, according to various naming and historical texts. For the cultural relationship of "nature" and "artifact", natural landscape and man-made objects are related continuously, co-existing harmoniously and acting for each other, with no conflicting as in the Western culture. For the historical source of today's opinions, "painterly idea" has influenced greatly since it was established as the main purpose of both garden and rockery making in the late Ming period, with the formal issue and scale problem becoming prominent.

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