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    筑塘、围垦和定居——萧绍圩区圩田景观分析

    关键词:风景园林;乡土景观;圩田;萧绍圩区

    Key words:landscape architecture; vernacular landscape; polder; Xiaoshao region

    摘要:萧绍圩区是中国最古老的圩田开垦地区之一。在约2 000年的开垦中,通过由堤坝、河网、陂塘和闸堰组成的水利系统,越民将这片流动荒芜的沼泽转化为栖居富饶的圩田景观。从风景园林学科的角度,将萧绍圩区景观分解为一个自然、耕植和聚落系统的叠加,借此简要论述萧绍圩区圩田景观的形成过程。然后,从由海塘、河网和闸堰设施组成的圩区水利系统、圩田子系统以及由孤丘聚落、塘堰聚落、溇港聚落形成的圩区聚落系统这3个部分对萧绍圩田景观加以分析,最后总结圩区所具有的尺度的层级性、形态的整体性和文化的衍生性等相关特征。

    Abstract:Xiaoshao region is one of the most oldest polder reclamation area in China. During 2,000 years of reclamation, variable and primeval swamp had been transformed to fertile polder landscape with hydraulic system composed of dykes, rivers, reservoirs, weirs and sluices. The paper introduces the formation of polder landscape in Xiaoshao region. From the perspective of landscape architecture, Xiaoshao region is decomposed into polder system, hydraulic system composed of sea dykes, canals and sluices, and settlement system composed of isolated hill town, dyke and sluice town, polder town. Finally, the paper summarizes three features which are hierarchy of scales, morphology integrity and culture derived polder landscape.

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