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    城市湖泊湿地对空气PM10、PM2.5的影响——以武汉为例

    关键词:风景园林;城市湖泊湿地;PM10;PM2.5;相对湿度;武汉

    Key words:landscape architecture; urban lake wetland; PM10; PM2.5; relative humidity; Wuhan

    摘要:选择武汉城市三环内主城区8块湖泊湿地为研究对象,采用小尺度定量测定的方法,研究城市湖泊湿地对空气PM10、PM2.5的影响。测定时间为2014年7月上旬7∶00—19∶00,每1h一次分别对8块湖泊湿地及对照处的PM10、PM2.5进行同步测定,挑选晴好无风相似的3d进行数据分析。结果表明:1)城市湖泊湿地与对照处的PM10、PM2.5差值变化与湖泊湿地面积、位置、形状、环境类型指数均呈正相关,其中湖泊湿地面积、位置指数的贡献值最大。2)随着城市湖泊湿地面积的增大,增湿效应逐渐加强,降低空气PM10、PM2.5效应呈现了一定的增强趋势,其中对空气PM10浓度的影响更为显著,当湖泊湿地面积为12.2hm2时,湖泊湿地与周边对照处的冷暖空气流动作用明显,空气中携带的粉尘颗粒物容易向湿度较低的方向扩散,从而改善湿地空气质量。当湖泊湿地面积达到临界值之后,多斑块离散型湖泊湿地布局对整个城市环境的空气质量改善效应更为显著。

    Abstract:To quantify the effects of urban lake wetland on air PM10 and PM2.5, eight urban lake wetlands in the central areas of Wuhan were selected; the air PM10 and PM2.5 from 7: 00 to 19: 00 over three sunny and windless days in Summer were investigated hourly using small-scale quantitative measurement method. The results showed that: 1) The PM10 and PM2.5 gap between lake wetland and the control was positively correlated with the area of lake wetland (WA), location (DIST) in reference to a defined city center, landscape shape index (LSI) and the surrounding non-built-up proportion around 500m of wetland (PB), and the WA and DIST indexes had the greatest effects on variations in PM10 and PM2.5 gap. 2) The air PM10 and PM2.5 benefits increased with the area of the lake wetlands and the air PM10 benefit was more significant, and the effect was obvious and stable with approximately 12.2 hm2 wetland. The changes in interaction of cold and warm air from lake wetland to the surrounding control played an important role in improving air quality, and the air dust particles was easier to spread toward the lower humidity direction. When the urban lake wetland area reached a certain critical value, it would have an obvious effect on the decrease of PM10, PM2.5 with dispersive lake wetlands in urban environment.

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