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    澳大利亚景观保护史

    关键词:风景园林;文化景观;国家公园;景观保护;乡土文化;土著居民;乡村景观

    Key words:landscape architecture; cultural landscape; national park; landscape conservation; native culture; indigenous people; rural landscape

    摘要:考察了澳大利亚景观保护历史。澳大利亚土著原住民在这片土地上生活了6万年之久,他们照看着家园,也被大自然的资源回馈眷顾着。景观对他们来说是鲜活的生命。200年前到来的欧洲殖民者,带着北半球的思维方式,惊惧地在这广袤陌生的土地上拓荒。火灾、干旱、洪水和虫患瘟疫侵袭着欧洲人以及他们带入的庄稼和动物。直至20世纪,人们才渐渐认识到这片土地的深层生态以及澳大利亚殖民者对土地的野蛮冒犯,这促成了对林木的保护,进而对“美景”、风景海岸线的保护以及对美国国家公园的反省。

    Abstract:This paper examines the history of landscape conservation in Australia. Aborigines lived here for 60,000 years caring for the country so that they in turn would be cared for by its resources. Landscape is a living entity for them. Europeans settled here only 200 years ago bringing northern hemisphere perspectives and wondered at the immensity and strangeness of this new land as they set out to exploit it. Fire, drought, flood and insect plagues almost overwhelmed them and their introduced crops and animals at times. But over the last century there has been a gradual understanding of the deep ecological time embedded in this continent and of its violation by settler Australians. This led to reserves to protect timber, then "beauty spots" and scenic coastlines and re-thinking of the Americans, national parks.

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