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期刊杂志

    景观遗产——西方的自然、精神灵性与审美

    关键词:风景园林;文化景观;审美;景观;精神性;西方;东方;哲学;遗产

    Key words:landscape architecture; cultural landscape; aesthetics; landscape; spirituality; Western; Eastern; philosophy; heritage assessment

    摘要:基于对中国文化的理解,从古代自然的精神灵性着手,梳理西方景观的精神与审美发展历史,强调文化诠释在遗产景观中的差异性和重要性。东西方古代景观在最初均具有强烈的精神和道德价值。在中国,自然对于精神的重要性,通过儒、释、道等文化的糅杂一直延续至今。在西方,古代自然的精神性价值并未得到延续。景观及其自然本身所蕴含的精神价值转变为对伦理和美的形式的关注,直至17世纪审美科学的引入。西方理性主义、科学和计量学自17世纪始不断发展,至今一直占据着主导地位。18—20世纪,德国和英国哲学家们就审美、景观、遗产和自然的议题进一步争论。21世纪,世界遗产价值仍依照西方一贯的计量评价方法,在既有标准下,以客观价值评价为主导,排斥与主观因素相关的精神和审美价值,导致了中西方景观遗产保护和管理的价值分歧。

    Abstract:This paper explores the Western spiritual and aesthetic landscape values based on the understandings of Chinese culture. The paper recognises that while Eastern perceptions of ancient landscapes and nature were primarily imbued with spiritual and moral values, there has been a similar ancient history of spiritual, moral and aesthetic values associated with Western landscapes. In the East, spiritual significance related to landscape and nature has been continually maintained through Daoism and Confucianism and later Buddhism up to the present; in contrast in the West such values have not been continuous; instead ancient spiritual values in the landscape changed to interpreting landscapes through ethical values and the beauty of form. This persisted until the 17th century when the science of aesthetics was introduced. The stridency of Western Rationalism, science and measurement has increasingly gained ascendancy from the 17th century up to the present. Subsequently, from the 18th century to the 20th century, there have been continuing debates about aesthetics, landscape, heritage and nature. In the 21st century, landscape heritage assessments rely on rigorous parametric methodologies, which are predominantly objectively determined against established criteria. In such a context, spiritual and aesthetic assessment of landscapes have been avoided because of the perceived subjectivity of the assessor. This has resulted in confusions about Eastern and Western heritage landscape values and their management.

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