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    响应山地水文特征的冲沟地段城市设计策略研究

    关键词:风景园林;山地城市;水文特征;冲沟地段;城市设计;巫山龙潭沟

    Key words:landscape architecture; mountain city; hydrological characteristics; gully; urban design; Longtan Ditch in Wushan

    摘要:快速城市化语境下人地关系紧张带来的灾害频发,使得以景观途径寻求适宜的风险评估与防范方法,成为当下城市安全研究的重要探索方向。山地水文特征影响下的山洪、泥石流、滑坡等城市安全问题凸显,尤其是在规划管理薄弱的中小城市,缺乏安全评估的无序建设,所造成的安全问题尤为严重。围绕山地水文特征下的冲沟成灾机制,分析“快速汇水引发的山洪及泥石流”“沟坡地表径流侵蚀引发的滑坡”“蓄水能力弱造成的旱涝调适能力弱”的冲沟安全问题,并以重庆市巫山县龙潭沟为例,提出“缓解雨洪的冲沟防洪体系建构”“固坡引水的山体剖面改造”“水资源时空调节的低影响开发运用”的冲沟城市设计策略,以期响应山地水文特征下的冲沟脆弱生态系统保护工作,促进山地城市水资源的科学规划、优化配置和高效利用,为可持续的山地城市建设发展提供理论与实践经验。

    Abstract:Rapid urbanization context of human-land tensions brought about frequent disasters, making the landscape approach to seek its appropriate risk assessment and prevention methods as an important direction of exploration in the current urban security research. The hydrological characteristics of mountainous areas are more prominent in gully landforms, which can easily lead to disasters such as flash floods, landslides and debris flows. Especially in the disorderly encroachment construction gully section, the lack of safety assessment of urban construction, resulting in personal and property loss is more urgent. Based on the mechanism of gully disaster under the mountain hydrological characteristics, this paper analyzes the mechanism of flood disaster caused by rapid catchment, landslides caused by surface runoff erosion of ditch slope, weak ability to adjust drought and waterlogging caused by weak water storage capacity, such as gully water security issues. Through the practice case of Wushan Longtan ditch, the paper proposed the strategy of the gully-water safety urban design of "the construction of flood control system about rainwater gullies ease", "diversion slope mountain trail design", and "comprehensive utilization in low impact development of water resources". Thus those help to maintain the weak gully ecosystems restricted by mountain hydrological characteristics, and achieve the target of the mountain city water resources' scientific planning, optimal allocation and efficient use, and could provide theoretical and practical experience for developments and constructions of sustainable mountain city.

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