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    中国大陆风景园林教育的可持续发展——中美风景园林教育探讨

    关键词:风景园林;风景园林教学;风景园林方法论

    Key words:landscape architecture; pedagogy for landscape architecture; landscape architecture methodology

    摘要:中国风景园林教育相关学系发展迅速,但要可持续发展,还有待改变对待自然资源生态运用的思维,回应人文社会经济效益多元价值的整合,实现人类社会面向更安全与健康、更具福祉与美质的真正实践。依此,首先探讨并回顾美国风景园林在过去150年的历史与传承,以纽约重大工程部门风景园林的实践和经营管理要求为始,检视风景园林可持续发展的基础;其次,分析并对比在美国和中国台湾地区风景园林学运用的2种方法论,提出风景园林专业教育的整合性方法。同时,风景园林教育应改变只有风景园林景观的狭窄思维,放弃成见,不纠缠于学科命名,而以解决目前社会人民所遭遇的各类问题为依归。最后,建议通过“思考-准备-练习-提升-检核”的步骤,达到上述“更安全、更健康、更具福祉”的社会目标,从而达到风景园林教育的可持续发展。

    Abstract:The booming institution and collegiate study of Chinese landscape architecture is advancing rapidly. In order to achieve the feat of sustainability, the pedagogy for students and academic colleges must enthusiastically comply with the application of natural resources, sustainably allied with cultural and socio-economic benefits and expectations. Sustainability is based on the passion to carry out and move towards a safer, healthier, and more humane society. This study first examines the history of American landscape architecture development in the last one hundred fifty years as a groundwork to understand the philosophy of sustainability. The study also scrutinizes management outcomes in the last thirty years at the Capital Projects Section of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC DPR), which is representative of functioning sustainable landscape planning, design and construction. Furthermore, this study defines two typical methodologies that are practically applied in the American and Chinese Taiwan's colleges of landscape architecture. The methodologies combine components of landscape architecture with engagement of natural factors, balancing cultural, socio-economical, and engineering requirements with Chinese traditional poetics and literary critique. In order to avoid falling into the trap of confirmation basis, such as "landscape architecture" denominated, the study suggests a multi-disciplinary pedagogy for landscape architecture design and planning, using "recognizing–preparing–practicing–enhancing–and examining" tactics to solve a series of problems. Moving forward toward solving and seeing sustainable landscape architectural sustainability, the society can become safer, healthier, and more humane in both the short and long run.

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