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    荒野、再野化与自主性生态系统——IUCN-1b类保护地管理中的概念演进

    关键词:风景园林;荒野;再野化;荒野保护地;野性;管理

    Key words:landscape architecture; wilderness; rewilding; wilderness protected area; wildness; stewardship

    摘要:“荒野”这一概念的含义因人而异。在美国,为便于政府部门进行国土管理,1964年通过的《荒野法》对“荒野”给出了官方定义。此后,通过持续的研究工作,人们对“国家荒野保护体系”相关属性、价值和威胁因素的理解得以改进。20世纪70年代,美国进一步的荒野立法将指定荒野保护地的范围扩大到受商业开发影响严重、野性区域面积较小但地理位置靠近人口众多区域的美国东部。1980年立法建立了阿拉斯加荒野保护地,美国国家荒野保护体系的面积因此翻倍。但是,该法律中包含有许多特殊条款,允许农村居民的生计活动,允许已有的使用机械进入荒野区的方式继续存在。拥护“自然资源保护主义”的生物学家们利用了现有的荒野保护体系将更大范围的景观“再野化”(rewild)。这类再野化景观以荒野地为核心,通过生态廊道与其他区域相连,使得大型捕食动物群体及其猎物群体得以恢复并繁衍兴旺。“再野化”的概念在其定义和应用上都已发生演变,自然资源保护主义活跃分子们在使用这个概念时赋予其“可塑性”,即根据不同语境做出不同阐释。世界自然保护联盟新近发布了《荒野保护地:IUCN保护地类型1b管理指南》,正在考虑建立或扩展荒野地的国家,需要在不同的文化背景、情境中理解并应用这些概念。

    Abstract:The concept of wilderness has different meanings to different people. In the US, the Wilderness Act of 1964 defined it officially for US government land management purposes, though continuous research has improved our understanding of attributes, values and threats associated with our National Wilderness Preservation System. Subsequent US legislation in the 1970s expanded wilderness designation to the eastern US where lands had been heavily influenced by commodity extraction, and wild areas were smaller in size but physically closer to a large part of the American population. Legislation doubled the US system in 1980 by including lands in Alaska but with many special provisions to accommodate subsistence use by rural people and existing mechanical means of access. Conservation biologists have capitalized on this existing wilderness system to "rewild" larger landscapes. Such rewilded landscapes have wilderness at the core, and are connected to other areas through ecological corridors that allow large predators and their prey to be re-established and thrive. The concept of rewilding has evolved in definition and application, including being used by conservation activists in a "plastic" sense, or as context requires. With new guidelines issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature for management of wilderness (protected area category 1b), these concepts need to be understood and potentially applied in different cultural context situations in countries considering initiating or expanding wilderness designation.

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