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    月季育种的国内现状和国际趋势

    关键词:园林植物;月季;育种 ;现状;国际趋势

    Key words:landscape plants; roses; breeding; status; international trend

    摘要:近年来,中国月季育种事业有了长足的发展并取得了丰硕的成果,通过对2000—2016年我国自育月季品种进行统计,将月季育种目标分为花色育种、花香育种、抗病育种以及抗性育种4类。并对我国月季有效的育种方法进行总结分析,包括杂交育种、芽变育种、诱变育种、分子育种4种。通过与全美月季大选(AARS),世界月季联合会(WFRS),以及国际栽培植物品种登录权威(ICRA)的统计数据比较分析发现,相较于世界水平而言,我国月季育成新品种数量较少,品质较差,并提出以下建议。首先抓住当今世界月季发展的主流趋势,制定符合需求的月季育种目标;其次借鉴月季发展水平较高国家的经验和方法,结合我国的实际情况,改进育种技术,在新品种数量上实现突破;最后,在满足月季观赏性的同时,更加关注月季品种的栽培品质,缩小与国际先进水平的差距。

    Abstract:Recently, China has made some achievements in rose breeding. Through statistics from 2000 to 2016, the breeding aim was focused on four aspects: floral color, floral scent, disease resistance, and stress resistance. The breeding methods were divided into four pathways, hybridization, sport, induced mutation and molecular breeding. Based on statistics from All-American Rose Selection, World Federation of Rose Societies, and International Cultivar registration Authority for Roses, compared to the whole world, both quantity and quality of the new rose cultivars in China still have some weakness. Therefore, breeding aim should be set to meet the needs of the cut rose market. Next, we should apply the advanced approaches in other advanced countries in our rose breeding practice to have a breakthrough on quantity. Besides the ornamental beauty, the cultivation adaptability is also of great importance to catch up with the rose breeding in developed countries.

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