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北京城市公园春季人工声景构成及其 变化
白梓彤,王成*,赵伊琳,郝泽周,孙振凯
0
作者简介:
摘要:
声景是生态学的一个新兴领域,通过声学手段反映 生态系统质量、研究生物活动规律。选择北京五环内的10个 城市公园,采集公园内春季的声音数据,并基于城市公园声景 声谱图,结合功率谱密度的计算,研究北京城市公园人工声的 构成及其昼夜变化规律。结果显示:1)北京城市公园人工声 主要分布于低频0.2~2.5kHz;2)春季北京公园内的人工声 主要有38种,包括6种交通声、5种话语声、8种机械电子声 和19种活动声,话语声出现最久;离散型人工声有13种,连 续型有25种,以连续型人工声为主;3)城市公园中的人工声 以话语声和活动声为主,在综合性公园、社区公园、游园及专 类公园中话语声出现最久;在郊野公园中,交通声出现最久; 4)不同公园的人工声昼夜变化规律一致,昼间的人工声构成 显著多于夜间。结果表明:人类活动对城市公园的声景产生较 大影响,人工声在城市公园的整个声景中占有主要地位,人工 声来源较为广泛,且以活动声和交通声为主。
关键词:  风景园林  人工声  声景生态学  城市公园  声 景指数
DOI:
基金项目:
Characteristics and Temporal Variation of SpringAnthrophony in Urban Parks in Beijing
BAI Zitong,WANG Cheng,ZHAO Yilin,HAO Zezhou,SUN Zhenka
Abstract:
Soundscape is an emerging field in ecology. Acoustic methods can reflect the quality of ecosystems and study the laws of biological activities. In this study, ten urban parks within the fifth ring road of Beijing were selected. The sound data of spring in the park were collected to study the composition of anthrophony in Beijing urban parks and their temporal changes. Methods: Based on the study of spectrogram and the calculation of power spectral density, the experiment will reflect the composition characteristics and variation of anthrophony in urban parks. Results: 1) Anthrophony in Beijing urban parks are mainly distributed at low frequencies of 0.2-2.5kHz and occupy a major position in the soundscape; 2) There are 38 kinds of anthrophony in Beijing parks in spring, including 6 kinds of traffic sounds, 5 kinds of human sounds, 8 kinds of mechanical sounds, and 19 kinds of activity sounds. Among them, the length of human sounds is the longest; There are 13 types of discrete anthrophony and 25 types of continuous anthrophony, and the length of continuous sounds is the longest; 3) In Beijing urban parks, anthrophony mainly consists of human sounds and activity sounds. In comprehensive parks, community parks, amusement parks, and specialized parks, human sounds appear for the longest time, however in country parks, traffic sounds appear the longest; 4) The variation law of anthrophony indifferent parks were consistent in day and night. The anthrophony during the day were significantly more than that at night. Conclusions: Human activities have a great influence on urban soundscape. Anthrophony plays a major role in the whole soundscape of urban parks which is composed of a wide range of sources. Anthrophony in urban parks mainly consists of activity sound and human sound.
Key words:  landscape architecture  anthrophony  soundscape ecology  urban park  soundscape index

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