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“西风东渐”的在地实践:汉口租界 园林钩沉
赵纪军,孟诗棋
0
作者简介:
摘要:
汉口在19世纪中叶第二次鸦片战争后被辟为通商口 岸,各国租界相继设立,租界园林应运而生,在引入各宗主国 园林营造风格的同时,为在留外人提供了亟须的生活与娱乐空 间,也是彰显殖民政治霸权的窗口。但有限的土地资源、水患 频仍的自然条件,使汉口租界园林规模与发展远不及上海、天 津等沿海通商口岸城市,也相应形成了鲜明的“在地性”:各 国租界园林以建筑附属园林为主,甚至催生了屋顶花园的园林 类型,但也限制了宗主国园林营造风格的充分植入;“公园” 这一在其他城市租界早已普及的园林形式,在有效控制水患、 进而获得更多可资利用的建设用地之后,才在20世纪20年代 经由日本人之手有所建置。此外,各国租界出于营商便利沿长 江串联排布,并随之形成了近代汉口特有的外滩“绿带”风景 线。汉口租界园林奠定了近代以租界为轴心的绿地系统雏形, 促进了华界屋顶花园、营商经营性园林的建设,对汉口的近代 化发展具有重要的历史意义。
关键词:  风景园林  近代  西风东渐  汉口  租界园林
DOI:
基金项目:
The Local Practice under "the Influences of theWest on the East": Historical Investigations on theConcession Gardens in Hankou
ZHAO Jijun,MENG Shiqi
Abstract:
Hankou was established as a treaty port after the second Opium War in the mid-19th century, with concessions being set up one after another. Concession gardens were then built, and the garden styles of colonial powers were introduced, providing much-needed living and entertainment space for foreigners and exhibiting the colonial political hegemony. However, the limited land resources and frequent floods restricted the scale and development of Hankou concession gardens which were far less than those in the coastal treaty ports in cities such as Shanghai and Tianjin, but at the same time led to a distinct "local character". Firstly, the concession gardens were largely attached to buildings, which even resulted in roof gardens and also limited the full implantation of the garden styles of colonial countries. Secondly, although "public park" had long been popular in concessions of other cities, only after the effective control of floods and the acquirement of more available construction lands, was it built by the Japanese in the 1920s. Thirdly, while the concessions were lined along the Yangtze River for business purposes, the "green belt" of the bund became a unique landscape in modern Hankou. Hankou concession gardens laid the foundation for the development of modern green space system, and promoted the construction of roof gardens and business gardens out of the concessions, which were of historical significance for the modern development of Hankou.
Key words:  landscape architecture  modern era  influences of the West on the East  Hankou  concession gardens

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