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地理民族双重影响下的渝东南传统聚落 景观特征研究
张菁,龙彬*,陈秋渝
0
作者简介:
摘要:
渝东南传统聚落景观是武陵山区土家族苗族文化生态的重要保护对象。该地区独特的山地环境和复杂的民族构成是探究聚落景观生成机制的关键。采用定性与定量结合的研究方法,分别从生态、生产、聚落和宅屋4个层次选取传统聚落景观的关键特征要素,结合GIS空间统计分析与形态分析的方法手段,总结归纳出受地理与民族双重影响下的渝东南传统聚落景观特征:1)受北高南低的自然地貌差异影响,传统聚落在区域尺度上呈现出北靠山居、南临水体的景观特征;2)受民族互动的影响,不同民族传统聚落景观呈现汉族聚落位于交通便利的溪河两岸,土家族聚落位于溪河两岸与浅丘地带,苗族聚落位于后山“溪里”的族群景观分异;3)传统聚落景观在聚落尺度上受地理与民族双重影响而呈现出差异化的特征,地理要素主要作用于生态、生产与聚落景观层次,民族要素主要作用于聚落与宅屋景观层次,并呈现出“从区隔到融合”的发展规律。渝东南传统聚落景观特征及其生成机制的挖掘为武陵山区文化生态保护提供了实证依据与支撑,可为构建西南山地多民族文化生态体系提供一个区域性的参照。
关键词:  风景园林  传统聚落  地形地貌  民族构成  景观特征  渝东南
DOI:
基金项目:
Research on the Landscape Characteristics of Southeast Chongqing Traditional Settlement under the Influence of Geography and Ethnicity
ZHANG Jing,LONG Bin,CHEN Qiuyu
Abstract:
The traditional settlement landscape of southeast Chongqing is an important part of the cultural and ecological reserve of the Tujia and Miao ethnic groups in the Wuling Mountains. This paper adopts a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to select the key elements of traditional settlement landscape characteristics from four dimensions, namely, ecology, production, settlement and house, and combines the technical means of GIS spatial analysis and morphological analysis to summarize the characteristics of traditional settlement landscape in southeast Chongqing under the influence of both geography and ethnicity: 1) Influenced by the difference between north and south landforms, the traditional settlement landscape shows the natural geographical characteristics of being near the mountains in the north and near the water in the south, high in the north and low in the south on the regional distribution scale; 2) Influenced by the interaction of ethnic groups, the landscape of the traditional settlement shows the difference in landscape of ethnic groups with the preference of location of Han settlements on both sides of the river with convenient transportation, Tujia settlements on both sides of the river and shallow hills, and Miao settlements in the back of the mountain "creek"; 3) The landscape of the settlement is influenced by both geography and ethnic groups and shows differentiated characteristics. The excavation of the landscape generation mechanism of traditional settlements in southeast Chongqing provides empirical evidence and support for the cultural ecological protection of Wuling Mountains, and provides a regional reference for the construction of a multi-ethnic cultural ecological system in the southwest mountains.
Key words:  landscape architecture  traditional settlement  topographical feature  ethnic composition  landscape feature  southeast Chongqing

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