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毕特丽克丝·法兰德及其作品研究:兼及 进步主义时期美国女性风景园林师群体之 崛起
刘亦师
0
作者简介:
摘要:
毕特丽克丝·法兰德是美国风景园林师协会11位创 始人中唯一的女性,是美国最早,也是公认最有才华的女性风 景园林师,一生主持了200多项设计,其中不少是风景园林史 上的杰作。法兰德成长及其事业发轫与当时在美国进步主义思 想影响下的女性主义运动大潮密不可分,在她的表率下,一批 美国女性风景园林师于20世纪20年代前后登上历史舞台。首 先简述法兰德开展其设计事业的背景,即19世纪末—20世纪 20年代美国进步主义及女性主义运动的发展概况,并从性别 视角考察英、美等国女性从事园艺工作的传统,以及这一传统 如何影响女性风景园林师群体在20世纪初的崛起。简述法兰 德特殊的成长和教育经历,分3个阶段介绍其事业的发展及各 阶段典型作品,并总结她的设计手法、风格和特征,着重讨论 其设计思想的来源及其对美国风景园林行业的影响。
关键词:  风景园林  毕特丽克丝·法兰德  进步主义  园 林设计  女性主义运动  敦巴顿橡树园
DOI:
基金项目:
A Study of Beatrix Farrand and Her Works: With Notes on Progressivism and the Rise of Women Landscapists in England and America
LIU Yishi
Abstract:
Beatrix Farrand was the founding member of American Society of Landscape Architects, and has been widely considered the earliest as well as the most talented woman landscapist who designed over 200 projects, many of which are prominent works in the history of landscape design. Farrand's career was closely intertwined with American Progressive Movement and feminist movements at the time, and she became the role model for the group of women professional landscapists about to come onto the historical stage. This paper first introduces the background of Farrand's era, including Progressive reforms and feminist movements since the 1890s to the 1920s, and the impact of Western imagination of suitable roles and jobs for women on the emerging profession of landscape design. It focuses on the unique process of Farrand's family and education, and examines the three stages of her 6-decade career, aiming to summarize her design principles, techniques, skills, personal style, and her impact on the field of landscape architecture in the US.
Key words:  landscape architecture  Beatrix Farrand  Progressivism  garden design  feminist movement  Dumbarton Oaks

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