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西北地景文化空间圈层(二):“与山川 同构”的风景营建手法
刘晖,赵宇翔,格日勒
0
作者简介:
摘要:
黄河中上游及丝路沿线地区大山大川自然景观及历 史发展中防御戍边的国土空间感知和认知特征,孕育并发展了 中国地景文化“形胜”观念。该区域各类人工工程营建在选 址、布局及构筑方式上,呈现出以山岳为共同视觉和精神标识 的区域集群性的营建特征,形成了“因山而成”的地景文化空 间圈层。研究基于风景观念辨析,建立从视觉-精神的知觉空 间构成到风景营建手法的分析框架,对6个地景文化空间圈层 及典型案例进行辨识,提出3点结论和思考:风景观念是在人 类长期的生活生产活动中对山川感知、表达、营建及祭祀、游 历、附文活动中不断发展形成的;地景文化空间圈层的风景营 建手法呈现出“与山川同构”的空间营构秩序;风景观念及其 营建传统转译为空间语言,是将人类在历史发展中形成的知觉 空间和营建空间联系在一起,成为今日国土景观具有社会属性 的文化内涵。
关键词:  风景园林  风景观念  地景文化空间圈层  与山川 同构  风景营建手法  知觉空间
DOI:
基金项目:
Landscape Culture Spatial Circles in Northwest China II: Composing Site Space with Visual Mountain as the Scenic Construction Approach
LIU Hui,ZHAO Yuxiang,Gerile
Abstract:
The natural landscape of the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River and along the Silk Road, the region of northwest China, as well as the territorial spatial perception and cognitive characteristics of border defense in historical development, have bred and developed the concept of "xingsheng (advantage geographical landform, 形胜)" of Chinese landscape culture. The site selection, layout, and building practices of various artificial engineering constructions in this region present a clustered feature with the great mountains as a common visual and spiritual symbol, forming a regional landscape cultural circle (LCC). Based on the analysis of the concept of "fengjing (scenic landscape, 风景)", this study establishes an analytical framework from visual-spiritual perceptual space composition to landscape construction techniques, identifies six LCC and typical cases, and proposes three conclusions and considerations: the concept fengjing is constantly developed and formed through the perception, expression, construction, worship, and travel activities towards the natural landscape with long-term human life and production activities; the landscape construction techniques of LCC present a spatial order of "composing site space with mountains"; the translation of fengjing and their construction traditions into spatial language links the perceptual space to construct space formed by ancient people in history, and it becomes a cultural connotation with social attributes in today's national landscape.
Key words:  landscape architecture  concept of fengjing (scenic landscape)  landscape cultural circle  composing site space with mountains  landscape construction technique  perceptual space

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