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不可通约的现代性:18世纪英国不规则园林的 自然观念
雷晶晶
0
作者简介:
摘要:
18世纪,英国园林形态从规则向不规则转变,是世 界园林史中一次创造性变革,影响深远直至当代。该转变有如 下解释:1)美学观念说,认为浪漫主义美学在园林范式转换中 起主要作用;2)中国影响说,则倾向于从文化传播角度,认为 中国园林是促使变革产生的外部推动;3)观念史学者洛夫乔伊 首次基于自然观念转变结合前2种观点,视中国园林为浪漫主义 早期形式。自然观念即同时代人对自然的整体认识。以观念史 的方法,基于自然观念说调和并深化以上解释,通过分析17— 18世纪自然观念的3个方面——自然法建构、自然的对象化和 人的自然天性,讨论作为社会起源的自然,作为艺术模仿对象 的自然,以及作为人类道德行为动机的自然天性三方面转变, 阐述英国不规则园林的思想起源、内在动机和演进动力。
关键词:  风景园林  英国园林  自然观念  浪漫主义  新 古典主义  不可通约
DOI:
基金项目:
Incommensurable Modernity: Concepts of Nature inthe 18th Century British Garden
LEI Jingjing
Abstract:
In the 18th century, the form transformation of the British garden from regularity to irregularity was a profound creativity in the history of world gardens. The transformation has following explanations: 1) Aesthetic theory believes that Romanticism played a major role in this garden paradigm shifting; 2) Chinese influence theory holds another perspective of cultural communication, that the irregularity of Chinese gardens had played an external impetus for the British gardens' form transformation; 3) Arthur Lovejoy discussed the concepts' shifting of nature, and regarded the Western information acceptance of Chinese irregular gardens as a dawn of British Romanticism. This paper attempts to reconcile and deepen the above explanations. By analyzing three concepts of nature in the 17th and 18th centuries: the construction of the natural law as the origination of society; nature as the origination of artistic mimesis and its objectification; and the nature of human as the origination of ethical behavior, this paper is to argue that the British irregular gardens had their own ideology, intrinsic motivation and evolution dynamics, which is deeply rooted in the origination of early modern concepts of nature.
Key words:  landscape architecture  British garden  concept of nature  Romanticism  Neoclassicism  incommensurable

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