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20世纪中国通商口岸儿童游戏场与 儿童游憩研究
张亦弛,秦晴*
0
作者简介:
摘要:
在儿童游戏场国际发展史中,中国的儿童游戏场经 历了独特的发展历程。与欧美各国因解决自身城市问题而出现 的儿童游戏场不同,中国儿童游戏场的兴起与发展源自欧美风 景园林思想与本土经济、社会、文化的碰撞。旨在探讨20世纪 上半叶上海、天津和广州3个近代中国最重要通商口岸内儿童 游戏场的发展历程,以期考察中国儿童游戏场和儿童游憩观念 的形成过程。本文指出,在20世纪前,这些通商口岸的儿童常 被视为“缩小的成人”,并采取成人的休闲活动进行游憩;而 随着“安全”“教育”“体育”等欧美思潮在20世纪的传播, 这些城市的儿童游戏场也先后引入了安全舒适的活动场地、增 长见闻的图书馆及锻炼身体的运动器械等一系列游乐设施,并 衍发出促进儿童身心发展、健康成长和社交需求等一系列休憩 功能,使得儿童游戏场成为功能复合的特色城市空间。在此过 程中,城市居民提升了对于儿童游憩重要性的认知,将儿童游 戏场视为能够培养儿童融入社会的重要工具。
关键词:  风景园林  儿童游戏场  儿童游憩  儿童发展  通 商口岸  近代中国
DOI:
基金项目:
Research on the Children's PlaygroundMovements and Children Playing in the 20thCentury Treaty Ports
ZHANG Yichi,QIN Qing
Abstract:
Children's playgrounds have followed a unique development path in China. In contrast to Europe and America, where the rise of playgrounds aimed to address urban issues, the development of playgrounds in China resulted from the interweaving of European and American landscape ideas with local economic, social, and cultural conditions. This essay explores the evolution of children's playgrounds and playing in China by examining the development of playgrounds in Shanghai, Tianjin, and Guangzhou, the three most significant treaty ports in China. The essay reveals that initially, children were often viewed as miniature adults and adopted adult ways of playing. However, after the introduction of ideas on safety, schooling, and physical development, playgrounds were constructed, and they developed into specific landscapes featuring safety lawns, libraries, and sports facilities, meeting children's perceived physical, social, and mental needs. Throughout this process, children's playgrounds evolved into complex urban spaces, which in turn led urban citizens to draw further attention on play, viewing playgrounds as a tool for training children to conform to society.
Key words:  landscape architecture  playground  children's playing  children's development  treaty port  modern China

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