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基于长城保护性修缮的遗址顶面植物处置 技术体系基础研究
潘剑彬,蓝婧雯,黄田田,王亚洁,汤羽扬
0
作者简介:潘剑彬 1981年生/男/内蒙古赤峰人/北京建筑大学建筑与城市规划学 院副教授,硕士生导师/美国北卡莱罗纳大学夏洛特分校访问学 者/研究方向为风景园林规划与设计、建筑遗产保护与风景园林 交叉、植物景观与生态设计(北京 100044)
摘要:
长城是国家重点保护文物及世界文化遗产。长城遗 产的保护性修缮以修复长城既有建筑病害、根除结构安全隐患 的过程“最低限度干预”但同时“原状保护”为目标。北京长 城遗址顶面植物是导致长城建筑病害发生且持续恶化的因素之 一,但若大规模无差别清除则可能危害长城遗产本体,因而针 对如何科学处置长城遗址顶面植物尚存在学术争议。以北京大 庄科长城保护性修缮工程实践为例,前期已实地调研完成并阐 明长城遗址顶面植物种类及空间分布特征,在此基础上分析由 其导致的长城建筑病害类型及其结构破坏机理;依据前期已阐 明长城遗址顶面植物定量化评价体系及植物处置原则,进一步 阐述长城遗址顶面植物地上部分清除后残存根系的处置技术体 系,以及利用长城遗址顶面原堆积土及保留植物、分层回填因 修缮剥离的原堆积土及其种子库再生植物形成“软盖层”保护 体系。研究成果为修复长城建筑病害、修缮后在长城遗址顶面 实施“软盖层”保护提供基础科学依据。
关键词:  风景园林  长城遗产保护  长城建筑病害  长城 保护性修缮  植物景观
DOI:10.19775/j.cla.2024.06.0022
投稿时间:2024-02-18修订日期:2024-03-19
基金项目:北京市社会科学基金重大项目(21ZDA01)
Technical System and Practical Cases of the PlantDisposal on the Top Surface of the Great WallHeritage Site
PAN Jianbin,LAN Jingwen,HUANG Tiantian,WANG Yajie,TANG Yuyang
Abstract:
The Great Wall is one of the national key protected cultural relics in China and a world-renowned cultural heritage. The protective repair of the Great Wall heritage site aims to repair the existing deterioration of the Great Wall and eradicate the structural safety risks with the goal of "minimum intervention", and "preservation of the original state". The plants on the top surface of the Great Wall heritage site are one of the factors leading to the occurrence and continuous deterioration of the Great Wall. But if large-scale indiscriminate removal is carried out, it may harm the body of the Great Wall heritage site. Therefore, there is still an academic controversy on how to scientifically dispose the plants on the top surface of the Great Wall heritage site. Taking Beijing Dazhuangke Great Wall heritage site as an example, preliminary field research has been completed, and the species and spatial distribution characteristics of the plants on the top surface of the Great Wall heritage have been clarified. Based on this, this paper analyzes the types and the mechanism of the structural defects of the Great Wall. According to the quantitative evaluation system of the plants on the top surface of the Great Wall heritage and the principles of the plant disposal, this paper further describes the key technology for the disposal of the remaining roots after removing the ground part of the plants on the top surface of the Great Wall heritage site, and clarifies the basic idea of using the transported soil deposits on the top surface of the Great Wall heritage, back-filling the original transported soil deposits stripped by repair in layers and the regenerated plants in the soil seed bank to form the "soft capping" protection. The research results provide a scientific basis for the restoration of the diseases of the Great Wall, the protection of the "soft capping" on the top surface of the Great Wall heritage, and the construction of the cultural landscape of the Great Wall.
Key words:  landscape architecture  heritage conservation of the Great Wall  deterioration of the Great Wall  protection and restoration of the Great Wall Heritage  plant landscape

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