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期刊杂志

    美国城市开放空间规划方法的研究进展探析

    关键词:风景园林;美国;城市开放空间;规划方法

    Key words:landscape architecture; United States; urban open space; planning method

    摘要:美国城市开放空间规划有一套系统的理论和科学方法,其中系统规划法、服务水平法(LOS)、复合价值法(GRASP)是最普遍使用的3种方法。系统规划法主要强调从评价居民需求、编制规划、项目策划和供给计划,到规划反馈、使用评价等规划体系的完整性。服务水平法侧重将居民游憩需求通过相应的公式和量化手段体现在规划空间要素中。复合价值法的重点在于评价现存城市开放空间的服务效能,有针对性地进行规划策略调整和空间、设施配给。这类把需求与供给相结合的方法值得国内同类规划学习,以有效提高科学性和实效性,体现规划的人文关怀。

    Abstract:The urban open space planning in USA has a set of systematic theories and scientific methods, among which the system planning method, level of service (LOS) method, and Geo-Referenced Amenities Standards Program (GRASP) are the three most commonly used methods. The system planning method stresses the integrity of the planning system from the evaluation of residents' needs, planning formation, project planning and supply plan to planning feedback and usage evaluation. The level of service method focuses on reflecting the residents' recreational needs in the planning space elements by corresponding formulas and quantitative means. The emphasis of the composite value method lies in valuing the service performance of the existing urban open space, and making targeted adjustment in planning strategies and space and facilities supply accordingly. Such approaches that combine demands and supply are worthy of reference value for similar planning in China, in order to effectively improve the scientific and effective level and embody humanistic care of planning.