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    新西兰保护部成立与改革的过程与特点分析

    关键词:风景园林;保护地;管理;机构改革;新西兰

    Key words:landscape architecture; protected area; management; institution reform; New Zealand

    摘要:新西兰保护部(Department of Conservation)是负责新西兰保护地保护与管理的政府机构。新西兰保护地的管理经历了由分散在林业、土地等各个部门,到成立保护部之后统一由保护部管理的过程,这一过程还伴随着其他政府机构的改革。同时,通过保护部在简化机构层级、改革财务制度、扩大管理范围、完善监督机制等方面的一系列改革,保护部成为具有很高行政级别、完整事权,并受法律保护的机构。保护部的成立与改革反映出保护观念方面的进步,也是各方力量共同推动的结果。

    Abstract:The Department of Conservation (DOC) is responsible for the protection and management of protected areas in New Zealand. The protected areas in New Zealand were management by several government agencies before the establishment of DOC. Accompanied by the institution reform of other agencies, DOC became a strong department managing all New Zealand's conservation land and waters, including recreational opportunities in these areas. In 1990s, DOC simplified its hierarchy of internal structure, reformed its financial system, expanded its management scope, and improved its supervision system. Consequently, DOC has high administrative level and complete power of governance, and is protected by law. The establishment and reform of DOC reflected the progress of conservation perception, and were driven by different people and organizations.

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