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    美国国家公园管理规划的公众参与制度

    关键词:风景园林;美国国家公园;管理规划;公众参与;4部法

    Key words:landscape architecture; American national park; management plan; public involvement; 4-parts model

    摘要:在管理规划过程引入公众参与是美国国家公园管理局积极履行“公民共建”理念的职能体现,它为规划编制者建立了一套明晰、精准、具体的公众参与技术标准,并提供全方位运作的机制保障。介绍作为外部条件的由《信息自由法》和《电子信息自由法修正案》所确立的美国联邦政府信息公开制度,以及《国家环境政策法》对规划环评公众参与的强制要求;总结了美国国家公园管理规划公众参与的关键硬件设施,制度设计的目标、原则、形式、实施与运作机制,对作为核心工具的 “4部法”技术规程进行系统化的阐释与解读。

    Abstract:The integration of public involvement within the process of American National Park management planning is National Park Service's responsibility of performing its "civic engagement" doctrine. NPS has established a series of clear, precise and complicated technical standards for the planners and provided a full range of mechanisms to insure their implement. This paper reveals the national information disclosure system regulated by Freedom of Information Act for the United States and Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments as legal basis, and the requirements from NEPA, meanwhile demonstrates the key information infrastructure built by NPS, and goals, principles, forms, implementation and operation of public involvement, as well as the key tool as "4-parts model".

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