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期刊杂志

    在宾夕法尼亚大学中国景观研讨会分组会上的发言

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    内容:我认为,现在的LA界的思维是一团乱麻:用解决乡间问题的办法(design with nature)去解决城市问题, 用解决城市景观的办法(landscape urbanism)去解决乡间问题。
    In my opinion, the thought in LA field is in a mess: The way to solve countryside problems (design with nature) is used to solve city problems, while the way to solve city landscape problems (landscape urbanism) is adopted to solve rural problems in urban-rural fringe area. 

    此外,为了应付全球的问题,科学为人类提供了解决现实问题的方法和途径,而艺术解决着感觉和人性的需要。但是,在LA界,我们正在努力用科学去解决艺术或审美的终极问题(gestaltism),又极力用艺术式的思维方法(by idea)去解决本质上属于科学领域的现实自然规律问题。
    Besides, in order to cope with global issues, science has provided measures and means to solve the existing problems facing us, and art is targeting our needs in both feeling and humanity. However, in LA field, we are trying to solve the ultimate issues of art or aesthetics with science (gestaltism), and to solve the existing problems relating to the natural rules with artistic thinking (by idea).

    打通城市和乡村,应该着力解决城乡二元化,最后整体改变人类的社会结构和生活方式;打通科学和艺术,应该改造流行的科学方法的局限性和实用艺术(主要是工程性艺术)方法的任意性;而不应使用我在开头指出的方法。
    To merge cities and villages, we should strive to solve the problem of urban and rural duality, so as to change the social structure and lifestyles of human being entirely in the end. To merge science and art, we shall transform the limitation of vogue scientific methods and the capriciousness of applied art (mainly engineering art). The above wrong methods that I pointed out at the beginning shall not be adopted.

    上述问题的第一个源头在于LA界的概念混乱。landscape的多义性造成LA理论系统充斥着概念偷换,例如大地生态规律的结果“-scape”被反过来当作生态现象的原因。这个问题在中国更加严重,在日本人翻译的汉字“景观”里,连土地(land)的含义也悄然逝去。
    To trace the sources resulting in the above problems, the first culprit is the confused concept in LA field. The ambiguity of "andscape" causes numerous switch concepts in LA theoretical system. For instance, the "-scape" (pattern) as the result of earth's ecological laws is used as the reason for ecological phenomena. This problem is even more serious in China. An example is, in the Japanese translation of "landscape" into the Chinese characters (jing guan), even the meaning of land has been erased.

    第二个源头在于思维方法。人与自然的动态的、复杂的多维关系网,被分割成互无关联的图层、碎片,即使在自成系统的图层内部,其各个元素的关系也是死板的,刚性的,简单线性的。简而言之,当下流行的简单机械的多元线性回归(例如图纸叠层方法)成为所谓“科学”的代名词。
    The second source is the way of thinking. In the dynamic, complex and multi-dimensional network of relationship between man and nature, it is divided into layers or fragments which are mutually unrelated. Even in the interior of each layer, the relation between various elements is rigid, inflexible and simple linear. In short, nowadays the simple, mechanic and popular multivariable linear regression (such as the map overlap method) has become the synonym of so-called science.

    我认为,解决上述问题的前景,在于回归中国传统关于天人关系的优秀文化,主要包括3个部分:实事求是的求实精神,阴阳互动的动态思维,以及“人与天调”的指导思想。
    In my opinion, the prospect to solve these problems lies in the return of traditional Chinese culture on the relation between man and the heaven (in Chinese, the heaven means the nature), which  mainly includes three parts: the spirit of seeking truth from facts, the dynamic thinking of interaction between yin and yang, and the guiding ideology of harmony between man and nature. 

    实事求是就是从实际(而不是从概念)出发,探求事物的内部联系及其发展的外部条件,做到按照事物的实际情况办事。阴阳互动就是认为任何事物内部都有性质相反又相成的成分,它们的互动是事物发展变化的基本原因。人与天调就是在人与自然的关系上,人应该低调自谦,并主动把自我表现的地域压缩到最小量级。
    The spirit of seeking truth from facts is to explore the internal relations and to research the external development conditions for each object based on the actual facts (rather than from the concept), so to handle things according to the actual situation. Interaction of yin and yang indicates each object has contrary yet complementary components, their interior and interaction are the fundamental reasons for the development and change of the object. Harmony between man and nature means man should act reasonably and modestly, and compress his self-expression area to the minimum magnitude consciously.

    我以为,科学思维和科学方法的准确、深入和定量,是中国思维的补充。但我们始终要记住,任何事物和规律都是依条件而变化的,包括各种科学研究的成果。中国思想方法与科学研究的结合,是我们前进的成功之路。
    I think, the accuracy, depth and quantity of scientific thought and scientific method are supplements to the Chinese thinking. However, we must bury in mind that every object and rule changes with conditions, including scientific research results. Therefore, the combination of Chinese thinking and scientific research is our way heading for success.

    正是基于这种思想,近一年来清华大学杨锐教授提出并深入阐述了中国风景园林学的元概念“境”,我则提出了“境学”系统的纲要,先后发表在2014年6月和2015年3月的《中国园林》学刊。希望各位同事能在阅后多提意见。谢谢。
    It is based on this thinking that in the past year Professor Yang Rui of Tsinghua University put forward and elaborated the meta-concept 境 (JING, similar to territory, environment etc.) in Chinese landscape architecture, and I myself put forward the outline of 境学 (jinology) system. Our research has been published in the journal Chinese Landscape Architecture in June 2014 and March 2015. We hope you can share your opinions after reading the papers. Thank you.

    注:宾夕法尼亚大学中国景观研讨会会议报道见本期P106行业动态。