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由单一走向多样:平原农业区生物多样性 保护的规划途径——以辽宁省黑山县为例
贾一非,王云才*
0
()
摘要:
平原农业区的生产和土地利用方式严重影响区域的 生物多样性,利用融合多学科的景观空间规划构建有效的评价 方法和格局优化模式以实现多样化的生境保护和恢复,提升生 物多样性具有重要的作用。以辽宁省黑山县为例,首先梳理了 平原农业区对于生物多样性威胁的机制和研究的框架;其次识 别平原农业区的特殊生境类型,使用景观格局指数和InVEST 模型的生境质量评价构建多尺度生境质量评价机制;同时使用 基于图论和电路理论的Linkage Mapper软件,识别和分级 空间中的重要生态源地、潜在廊道及廊道上的关键夹点区域。 结果显示,农业景观中空间异质性和连接性影响生物多样性; 研究区有主要生境23类,整体生境质量较差,农田面积较大 是造成该问题的主要原因;识别出核心斑块33个,重要廊道 34条,通过与卫星图比照,廊道位置与线性生境重合;关键 夹点区域位于靠近农村居民点的自然生境上,故营造人类干扰 与生态平衡农村居住区是空间规划的重点;同时根据以上研究 提出了多尺度的空间规划途径,为平原农业区生境优化和生物 多样性保护提供了一定的理论参考。
关键词:  风景园林  平原农业区  生境  生物多样性  景观 异质性  空间连接性
DOI:
基金项目:
From Single to Diverse: A Planning Approach to Biodiversity Conservation in Plain Agricultural Area —The Case of Heishan County, Liaoning Province
JIA Yifei,WANG Yuncai
()
Abstract:
The production and land use patterns in the plain agricultural areas seriously affect the regional biodiversity, and it is important to use multidisciplinary landscape spatial planning to build effective evaluation methods and pattern optimization models to achieve diverse habitat conservation and restoration and enhance biodiversity. Taking Heishan County of Liaoning Province as an example, this research firstly compares the mechanisms and research priorities of threats to biodiversity in plain agricultural areas. Secondly, special habitat types in plain agricultural areas are identified, and the multiscale habitat quality index is constructed using the landscape pattern index and habitat quality evaluation of the InVEST model. Linkage Mapper software based on graph theory and circuit theory is also used to identify and classify important ecological source sites, potential ecological corridors, and key pinch point areas on the corridors. The results show that spatial heterogeneity and connectivity in agricultural landscapes affect biodiversity. The study area has 23 types of habitats, and the large area of agricultural land is the main reason for the poor habitat quality. 33 core patches and 34 important corridors are identified, and the corridor locations overlaps with linear habitats by comparing with satellite maps. The key pinch point area is located on a natural habitat close to the rural settlement, so the creation of a rural settlement with human disturbance and ecological balance is the focus of spatial planning. At the same time, corresponding spatial planning approaches are proposed based on the above studies, which provide theoretical references for habitat optimization and biodiversity conservation in plain agricultural areas.
Key words:  landscape architecture  plain agricultural area  habitat  biodiversity  landscape heterogeneity  spatial connectivity

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