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引导自然的自发秩序——以杭州江洋畈生态 公园内各野生动物种群的环境适应情况为例
何洋,沈实现*,晋亚日
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作者简介:何 洋 1988年生/男/浙江杭州人/硕士/中国美术学院风景建筑设计研 究总院有限公司工程师/研究方向为生态景观设计和参数化设计 (杭州 310012)
摘要:
都市“再野化”景观的营造,为城市自然栖息地的 存续提供庇护,也为市民近距离观察、欣赏自然全貌提供可 能。以杭州江洋畈生态公园为例,真实还原城市公园的“再野 化”景观设计举措对城市野生动物生存产生的深远影响。基于 园内陆生野生动物的生境分布情况及行为特点,采用样线法和 样方法相结合的方式,对栖息于此的野生动物进行持续观察研 究,发现以下生态设计策略对“引导自然自发秩序”起到至关 重要的作用,有效地促进了当地生态系统的健康演替:1)生境 岛的留存及栈道的设置有利于减少游客对栖息地的干扰;2)降 低灯光亮度、采用LED光源和减少照明时长能有效保护附近鸟 类和昆虫;3)提高果树、蜜源植物和寄主植物的比例能有效 提高鸟类和昆虫的丰富性;4)减少灭虫化学药剂的使用、保 留林间朽木能够显著提升昆虫的多样性,同时为小兽栖息提供 庇护。从园内动物的物种多样性、分布情况及特殊习性的形成 3个方面入手,分析景观设计对野生动物栖息产生的影响,以 及为未来的相关设计提供建议和启发。
关键词:  风景园林  城市公园  再野化景观  自发秩序  城 市野生动物  低干预设计  杭州江洋畈生态公园
DOI:10.19775/j.cla.2024.05.0020
投稿时间:2024-01-30修订日期:2024-03-14
基金项目:
Inspire the Spontaneous Order of Nature—Takingthe Environmental Adaptation of Wildlife Populationin Jiangyangfan Ecological Park of Hangzhou as anExample
HE Yang,SHEN Shixian,JIN Yari
Abstract:
"Rewilding" landscape environment provides shelter for urban wildlife, and also provides the possibility for citizens to observe and appreciate the full view of nature. This article takes Jiangyangfan Ecological Park in Hangzhou as an example, aiming to realistically restore the impact of the "rewilding" landscape design measures in Chinese urban parks on the survival of local wildlife. Based on the distribution and behavioral characteristics of terrestrial wildlife in the park, the research adopts the combination of Line Transect Method and Quadrat Method, which contains 4 line transects and 9 quadrats. The study found that the following design measures are more conducive to promoting the healthy succession of local ecosystems: 1) Planning the habitat island and suspended walkway are beneficial for reducing tourist interference with natural habitats; 2) Reducing the brightness of lighting, using LED light sources, and reducing lighting duration can effectively protect nearby birds and insects; 3) Properly planting some fruit trees, honey source plants and host plants can effectively improve the diversity of birds and insect species; 4) Reduce pesticide use and preserving decaying wood can significantly protect the richness of local fungal and insect species, while providing shelter for small mammals. This article analyzes the impact of landscape design on the habitat of wild animals from three aspects: wildlife diversity, distribution of various animal species and the cultivation of special habits of wild animals in the park, which provides some suggestions and inspiration for future related designs.
Key words:  landscape architecture  urban park  rewilding landscape  spontaneous order  urban wildlife  low intervention design  Jiangyangfan Ecological Park in Hangzhou

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