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高铁对沿线野生动物空间分布的影响 特征及生境适宜性评价——以京广高铁 武汉乌龙泉段为例
殷利华,杜慧敏,余田,姚忠勇,万敏*
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作者简介:殷利华 1977年生/女/湖南宁乡人/博士/华中科技大学建筑与城市规划 学院副教授,博士生导师/湖北省城镇化工程技术研究中心/研 究方向为工程景观、生态修复、风景园林规划与设计(武汉 430074)
摘要:
高铁作为中国重要的交通基础设施,其建设和运营 不可避免会对沿线环境造成不同程度的影响。解析高铁对沿线 生境的干扰特征,是实现沿线野生动物保护的重要途径。基于 京广高铁武汉乌龙泉段乡野样本地的长期红外相机监测结果, 分析高铁对沿线野生动物空间分布的影响特征,并筛选出当地 陆地野生动物代表物种小麂,提取其分布点数据,利用最大熵 (MaxEnt)模型预测小麂生境适宜区分布,分析气候、地形、 人类干扰和水源4类环境变量的影响程度。结果表明:1)高 铁对狗獾和黄鼬造成空间阻隔效应显著;2)小麂、白鹇、黄 鼬、狗獾和貉均对高铁产生回避效应;3)代表物种小麂的适 宜生境主要分布于核心区的中部,距离高铁的远近是影响小麂 生境适宜性的主要因素,且高铁对小麂生境的最大影响距离约 为1 500m。根据野生动物生境区因高铁建设而受到干扰的情 况,通过增加水源点、营造适宜动物生存的植被空间等措施促 进其受损生境修复。研究结果可为高铁沿线受损生境的空间识 别和修复提供参考。
关键词:  风景园林  生境干扰  高铁建设  生境修复  生物 多样性保护
DOI:10.19775/j.cla.2024.05.0097
投稿时间:2023-04-03修订日期:2023-07-07
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目“高铁沿线乡野生境干 扰与修复研究——以华中典型区段为例”(编号52278064)、 湖北省自然科学基金计划(联合基金项目)黄石创新发展联合基 金(重点项目)“露天矿山硬质岩高陡边坡植被建植关键技术 研发与集成应用”(编号2023AFD005)和国家自然科学基金 面上项目“基于湖河网络八景的区域风景特色及其保护传承研 究——以长江中游为例”(编号52178038)共同资助
Effects of High-speed Railway on the Spatial Distribution of Wildlife and Habitat Suitability Evaluation: A Case Study of Wuhan Wulongquan Section of Beijing-Guangzhou High-speed Railway
YIN Lihua,DU Huimin,YU Tian,YAO Zhongyong,WAN Min
Abstract:
As an important transportation infrastructure in China, the construction and operation of high-speed railway (HSR) inevitably affect the environment along the route to varying degrees. Habitat analysis of the disturbance of HSR is an important approach to realize biological protection along the routes. Based on the long-term infrared camera monitoring results of the rural sample sites of Wuhan Wulongquan section of Beijing-Guangzhou High-speed Railway, the effects of high-speed railway on the spatial distribution of wild animals along the railway were analyzed. The representative species of local terrestrial wild animal, chamois muntjac, was selected and the data of its distribution points were extracted. MaxEnt model was used to predict the distribution of suitable habitat areas of chamois muntjac, and the influence degree of four types of environmental variables: climate, topography, human disturbance and water source was analyzed. The results indicate that: 1) The high-speed railway has a significant spatial barrier effect on badgers and yellow-throated martens; 2) Reeve's muntjac, white-faced pheasant, yellow-throated marten, badger, and masked palm civet all exhibit avoidance behavior towards the highspeed railway; 3) The suitable habitat for the representative species Reeve's muntjac is mainly distributed in the central part of the core area, and the distance from the high-speed railway is the primary factor affecting its habitat suitability. Moreover, the maximum impact distance of the high-speed railway on Reeve's muntjac habitat is approximately 1,500 meters. According to the disturbance of high-speed rail construction of wildlife habitats, the restoration of damaged habitats can be promoted by increasing water sources and creating vegetation space suitable for animal survival. The results can provide reference for spatial identification and restoration strategies of damaged habitats along high-speed lines.
Key words:  landscape architecture  habitat disturbance  high-speed rail construction  habitat restoration  biodiversity conservation

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