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西安市街区尺度生境网络构建的案例 与思考
曹朔,陈宇,许博文,邱雪玮,刘晖*
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作者简介:曹 朔 1990年生/男/山东滨州人/西安建筑科技大学建筑学院在读博士 研究生/研究方向为风景园林规划与设计(西安 710055)
摘要:
城市街区尺度绿色空间呈现破碎化空间格局会对城 市生物多样性产生负面影响。街区尺度生境网络是连接场地绿 化与城市整体区域生态系统的纽带,是维护城市内部最小生境 单元生态系统稳定的基本保障。与宏观尺度相比,街区尺度生 境网络构建在地理信息数据获取、数据精度及土地利用分类等 方面均有差异。基于无人机航测数据进行生境制图,并综合运 用MSPA、InVEST、MCR等模型进行街区生境网络构建与 优化。结果显示:1)基于植被垂直结构特征进行生境制图, 可细化表征绿色空间的生境属性;2)街区环境内生境源地呈 现面积小、分布散、质量低的特征,即使绿地率较高的小型公 园绿地,其生境斑块的生境质量也可能较低;3)受硬质地表 分布特征影响,街区生境网络呈现区域分布不均、局地断裂、 内外生境割裂的空间格局;4)提取薄弱区域周边生境节点, 运用MCR模型构建连通路径,可指导生境节点与生境廊道增 补,实现街区生境网络优化。在城市绿地建设从增量发展向存 量优化转变的背景下,研究结果可为街区生境网络构建方法向 街区绿色空间规划设计方法转化提供思路。
关键词:  风景园林  城市绿色空间  街区生境类型  街区生 境制图  植被垂直结构  街区生境网络  城市生物多样性
DOI:10.19775/j.cla.2024.05.0104
投稿时间:2023-05-20修订日期:2023-09-28
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(编号51878531)、 陕西省科技厅陕西省自然科学基础研究计划重点项目(编号 2019JZ-48)、陕西省自然科学基金一般项目(编号2023-JCQN- 0525)、陕西省自然科学基础研究基金青年人才项目(编号 2021JQ-513)和陕西省教育厅专项科研项目(编号21JK0724) 共同资助
Case and Corollaries on the Construction ofBlock-scale Habitat Network in Xi'an
CAO Shuo,CHEN Yu,XU Bowen,QIU Xuewei,LIU Hui
Abstract:
The fragmented spatial pattern of urban block-scale green space has a negative impact on urban biodiversity. The urban block-scale habitat network (UBHN) is the link between the site greening and the overall regional ecosystem of city, and is the basic guarantee for maintaining the stability of the smallest habitat unit ecosystem within the city. UBHN construction differs in terms of geographic information data acquisition, data accuracy, and land use classification compared to the macro-scale. This research is based on UAV aerial survey data for biotope mapping, while integrating MSPA, InVEST, MCR and other models to construct and optimize the UBHN. The research found that: 1) Biotope mapping based on the vertical structure of vegetation features can be refined to characterize the habitat attributes of green spaces. 2) Habitat source areas within blocks are characterized by small size, scattered distribution, and low quality, and even small parklands with high green space rates may have habitat patches of low habitat quality. 3) UBHN exhibits spatial patterns of uneven regional distribution, localized disconnection, and fragmentation of internal and external habitats, influenced by hard surface distribution features. 4) By extracting the habitat nodes around the weak areas and using the MCR model to construct connectivity paths can guide the supplement of the habitat nodes and the habitat corridors to achieve the UBHN optimization. In the context of the transformation of urban green space construction from incremental development to stock optimization, the results provide ideas for the transformation of the construction method of UBHN into the planning and design method of the block-scale green space.
Key words:  landscape architecture  urban green space  block-scale habitat type  block-scale biotope mapping  vertical stratification of vegetation  block-scale habitat network  urban biodiversity

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