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湖北省巴东县古树资源组成及其空间 分布特征研究
王沛然,游桂璇,诸葛名名,达良俊,胡远东*
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作者简介:王沛然 1997年生/男/黑龙江绥化人/东北林业大学园林学院风景园林学 在读硕士研究生/研究方向为风景资源与遗产保护、生物多样性 保育(哈尔滨 150040)
摘要:
古树是全球生物多样性的重要组成部分,也是地方 文化的重要载体。在全球生物多样性不断丧失尤其是古树资源 持续减少的背景下,研究现存古树资源的组成和空间分布特征 对古树的保育和生物多样性维持具有重要意义,同时为地区发 展规划提供物种资源。以中国典型少数民族聚居地湖北省巴东 县的古树资源为研究对象,结合野外调查和历史文献查阅,分 析了巴东县古树的物种多样性、空间分布格局及其影响因素, 探讨了巴东县古树保护面临的挑战与策略。结果表明,共记录 古树2 192株,隶属41科85属121种,所含物种数量较多的 是壳斗科、松科、蔷薇科、木兰科和樟科,地理分布区系整体 呈现由热带向温带过渡的特点;优势物种包括核桃、银杏和油 杉;包含国家级保护物种17种;三级古树的个体数和物种数 均超过一级和二级古树;古树胸径主要介于40~100cm,冠幅 集中于10~17m,树高大多为15~25m;不同乡镇内分布的古 树数量和物种数的差异显著,且大多分布在林地、耕地和未利 用土地内。巴东县古树保护总体较好,95%以上的古树长势良 好;海拔高度、坡度、人口密度、土地利用方式和文化习俗是 影响巴东县古树资源组成和分布的主要因素;分级保护、分类 保护、环境保护教育和差异性保护性有利于古树资源的留存和 合理利用。
关键词:  园林植物  古树资源  物种多样性  分布格局  留 存机制  巴东县
DOI:10.19775/j.cla.2024.05.0138
投稿时间:2022-10-16修订日期:2023-04-11
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金项目(编号 2572017CA12)和科技部科技基础性工作专项专题“《中国植 被志》编研”(编号2015FY210200-4)共同资助
Study on the Composition and Spatial Distributionof Ancient Tree Resources in Badong County,Hubei Province
WANG Peiran,YOU Guixuan,ZHUGE Mingming,DA Liangjun,HU Yuandong
Abstract:
Ancient trees are important components of the global biodiversity as well as significant carriers of regional cultures. Studying the composition and geographical distribution traits of existing ancient tree resources is crucial for the preservation and maintenance of the biodiversity of ancient trees in light of the ongoing loss of biodiversity and providing information for regional development planning. This study examines the species diversity, geographic distribution pattern, and influencing factors of ancient trees in Badong County, Hubei Province, a typical ethnic minority settlement in China. It also discusses the difficulties and prevention measures for ancient tree conservation in Badong County. The findings revealed that 2192 ancient trees in all, representing 85 genus, 41 families, and 121 species. Fagaceae, Pinaceae, Rosaceae, Magnoliaceae, and Lauraceae were the species that contained the largest number of species. The geographical distribution presents the characteristics of the transition from the tropical zone to the temperate zone; the dominant species include Juglans regia, Ginkgo biloba and Keteleeria fortune. There are 17 national level protected species. Grade III ancient trees have more individuals and species than grade I and II ancient trees; The chest diameter of the ancient trees is between 40- 100cm, the crown width is between 10-17m, and the height of the tree is mostly 15-25m; Different townships have varying numbers of ancient trees and species, and most of them are found in areas with tree cover, cropland and sparse vegetation. More than 95% of the ancient trees in Badang County are growing well and are typically well-protected; The main variables influencing the composition and geographical distribution of ancient trees include altitude, slope, aspect, population density, land cover class, and cultural activities. Measures including graded protection, categorized protection, environmental education, and differential protectiveness are helpful for preserving and utilizing ancient tree resources in a responsible manner.
Key words:  landscape plant  ancient tree resource  species diversity  distribution pattern  retention mechanism  Badong County

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