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基于自生植物群落的景观设计途径研究 ——CSR理论介入城市自生地被植物群落 改良设计的探索
鲍璇,刘晖*,邹子辰,安婷,裴进文
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作者简介:鲍 璇 1987年生/女/陕西西安人/西安建筑科技大学建筑学院在读博士 研究生/西安建筑科技大学艺术学院讲师/研究方向为风景园林规 划与设计(西安 710055)
摘要:
作为生态服务功能得到广泛认同的植被资源,城市自 生地被植物群落在绿地建设过程中存在难以利用的问题,需要通 过风景园林设计手法赋予其符合生态秩序的结构与美学特征,才 能实现其实践运用价值。面对群落组成复杂、植株难以筛选、缺 乏稳定性与美学特征等问题,基于以场地自生地被植物群落为基 础进行人工改良设计的思路,提出依托CSR理论对自生群落的 物种组成、垂直结构、景观特质进行调控,并采取低干扰方式进 行建植与维护的设计、管理途径,通过人工干预的方式促进群落 的竞争筛选与演替过程,最终形成相对稳定的低维护地被群落景 观。研究开展了初步实验,改良设计的实验群落经过3年的生长 与演替,物种组成从R型植物优势转向为更加稳定的C型植物为 优势,群落植株密度与覆盖度显著提升,形成了包含主景观层、 底部空间保护层、点缀性景观层的垂直结构,在不同阶段呈现出 了各具特征的植物景观。实验结果验证了自生地被植物群落人工 改良设计途径的可行性,为基于城市自生地被植物群落的植物景 观生态设计实践提供了参考。
关键词:  园林植物  自生植物群落  地被植物群落  群落 改良设计  CSR理论  植物群落景观
DOI:10.19775/j.cla.2024.06.0097
投稿时间:2022-12-17修订日期:2024-01-16
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(51878531);陕西 省科技厅 陕西省自然科学基础研究计划重点项目(2019JZ- 48);陕西省科技厅 陕西省自然科学基础研究基金-青年人才项 目(2021JQ-513)
Research on Landscape Design Approach ofSpontaneous Community: Exploration on theImprovement Design of Urban Spontaneous GroundCover Plant Community Based on CSR Theory
BAO Xuan,LIU Hui,ZOU Zichen,AN Ting,PEI Jinwen
Abstract:
The spontaneous community in the urban environment is considered as a vegetation resource with extensive ecological service functions, but it is difficult to be used in the process of urban construction. After landscape architecture design, the spontaneous community will have clearer community structure and aesthetic characteristics, and will also have the value of green space design practice. In the face of complex community composition, difficulty in plant screening, lack of stability and aesthetic characteristics and other issues, based on the idea of improvement design of spontaneous groundcover plant community, this study proposes a design approach that relies on the CSR theory to regulate the species composition, vertical structure and landscape characteristics of the spontaneous community, and adopts low interference management. The competition and succession of the community were promoted after the intervention, and finally formed a stable groundcover plant community. A preliminary experiment was conducted to validate the idea. After 3 years of succession, the species composition of the experimental community shifted from R-selection dominance to C-selection dominance, and the plant density and coverage of the experimental community significantly increased. The structure of the experimental community includes the main landscape layer, bottom space protection layer, and decorative landscape layer, exhibiting unique plant landscapes at different times. The experimental results verify the feasibility of the approach of improvement design of urban spontaneous plant community, and provide a reference for ecological design of urban plant landscape.
Key words:  landscape plant  spontaneous community  groundcover plant community  community improvement design  CSR theory  plant community landscape

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