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分水墩:一种水利遗产中蕴含的传统理景 智慧
梁伟
0
作者简介:梁 伟 1975年生/男/浙江杭州人/浙江农林大学风景园林与建筑学院教 授级高级工程师/研究方向为城乡历史文化遗产保护与城市更新 (杭州 311300)
摘要:
分水墩是一种古代江南地区人工堆筑的水利设施,常 位于河道交汇处的水中央。其既有导航、阻水、分水等实用功 能,又蕴含着丰富的历史文化、宗教信仰、人居观念等人文信 息,是一种水利遗产和景观遗产。基于田野调查、社会访谈、 历史文献检索和历史影像考证,分析分水墩遗迹的总体建置沿 革、空间分布、文化内涵和理景理念、理景特征。得出分水墩 理景擅于使用巧营人文节点的点景方式,融合“临近远借、登 高远眺”的借景和造景手段,营造出“捍控水脉、耸秀中流、 豁目开襟、聚景凝萃”的理景特征。这种将实用功能与景观创 造融为一体的营建方式,体现了江南水利遗产特殊的理景智慧 和赓续传统,折射出古人统筹全域环境,以点睛关键地段,提 振人居聚落整体景观格局的全局理景思维。这是对中国景观遗 产研究对象的一次补充完善,对认识和研究水利遗产中包含的 传统风景园林理景理念具有一定参考价值。
关键词:  风景园林  分水墩  水利遗产  理景  景观遗 产  水域景观  运河
DOI:10.19775/j.cla.2024.06.0117
投稿时间:2023-04-20修订日期:2023-09-04
基金项目:
Fenshuidun: A Water Heritage with TraditionalLandscape Wisdom
LIANG Wei
Abstract:
Fenshuidun (water diversion pier) is located at the intersection of artificial and natural river, which is an artificial water conservancy facility built in Jiangnan area in ancient times. It not only has practical functions such as navigation, water blocking and water separation, but also contains rich cultural information such as history and culture, religious beliefs and human settlement concepts. Based on field investigation, social interview, historical literature, historical image retrieval and research, this paper analyzes the overall construction history, spatial distribution, cultural connotation, landscape concept and landscape characteristics of Fenshuidun. It is concluded that the landscape arrangement is good at using the point view method of cleverly creating cultural node, and integrates the borrowing and scene-making methods of "near and far borrowing, climbing and looking far" to create the landscape characteristics of "controlling the water pulse, rising and showing the middle flow, opening the eyes and gathering the scenery". This construction method integrating practical functions with landscape creation reflects the special wisdom of landscape management of Jiangnan water conservancy heritage and ceasing tradition, reflecting the ancient people's overall thinking of landscape management to improve the global landscape pattern of human settlements by coordinating the whole environment and focusing on key areas. This is a supplement to the traditional landscape study object, and has certain reference value to study the traditional landscape concept contained in the water conservancy heritage.
Key words:  landscape architecture  fenshuidun (water diversion pier)  water conservancy heritage  landscape design  heritage of landscape  water landscape  canal

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